【IELTS問題】リーディングパッセージ1のサンプル教材

【IELTS問題】リーディングパッセージ1のサンプル教材

こんにちは、SOLO IELTS TOEFLのルークです。

今回はIELTSリーディングパッセージ1のサンプル教材の解説をしていきます

早速リーディングのパッセージ1を解いてみましょう

リーディングパッセージ1

以下がIELTSリーディングパッセージ1の問題になります。制限時間20分を厳守して解いてみましょう。

You should spend about on Questions 1-13 which are based on Reading Passage 1

Mammoth kill

A mammoth is any species of the extinct genus Mammuthus, proboscideans commonly equipped with long, curved tusks and, in northern species, a covering of long hair. They lived from the Pliocene epoch (from around 5 million years ago) into the Holocene at about 4,500 years ago, and were members of the family Elephantidae, which contains, along with mammoths, the two genera of modern elephants and their ancestors.


Like their modern relatives, mammoths were quite large. The largest known species reached heights in the region of 4 m at the shoulder and weights of up to 8 tonnes, while exceptionally large males may have exceeded 12 tonnes. However, most species of mammoth were only about as large as a modern Asian elephant. Both sexes bore tusks. A first, small set appeared at about the age of six months, and these were replaced at about 18 months by the permanent set. Growth of the permanent set was at a rate of about 2.5 to 15.2 cm per year. Based on studies of their close relatives, the modern elephants, mammoths probably had a gestation period of 22 months, resulting in a single calf being born. Their social structure was probably the same as that of African and Asian elephants, with females living in herds headed by a matriarch, whilst bulls lived solitary lives or formed loose groups after sexual maturity.


MEXICO CITY – Although it’s hard to imagine in this age of urban sprawl and automobiles, North America once belonged to mammoths, camels, ground sloths as large as cows, bear-size beavers and other formidable beasts. Some 11,000 years ago, however, these large-bodied mammals and others – about 70 species in all – disappeared. Their demise coincided roughly with the arrival of humans in the New World and dramatic climatic change – factors that have inspired several theories about the die-off. Yet despite decades of scientific investigation, the exact cause remains a mystery. Now new findings offer support to one of these controversial hypotheses: that human hunting drove this megafaunal menagerie to extinction. The overkill model emerged in the 1960s, when it was put forth by Paul S. Martin of the University of Arizona. Since then, critics have charged that no evidence exists to support the idea that the first Americans hunted to the extent necessary to cause these extinctions. But at the annual meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology in Mexico City last October, paleoecologist John Alroy of the University of California at Santa Barbara argued that, in fact, hunting-driven extinction is not only plausible, it was unavoidable. He has determined, using a computer simulation, that even a very modest amount of hunting would have wiped these animals out.


Assuming an initial human population of 100 people that grew no more than 2 percent annually, Alroy determined that if each band of, say, 50 people killed 15 to 20 large mammals a year, humans could have eliminated the animal populations within 1,000 years. Large mammals in particular would have been vulnerable to the pressure because they have longer gestation periods than smaller mammals and their young require extended care.


Not everyone agrees with Alroy’s assessment. For one, the results depend in part on population-size estimates for the extinct animals – figures that are not necessarily reliable. But a more specific criticism comes from mammalogist Ross D. E. MacPhee of the American Museum of Natural History in New York City, who points out that the relevant archaeological record contains barely a dozen examples of stone points embedded in mammoth bones (and none, it should be noted, are known from other megafaunal remains) – hardly what one might expect if hunting drove these animals to extinction. Furthermore, some of these species had huge ranges – the giant Jefferson’s ground sloth, for example, lived as far north as the Yukon and as far south as Mexico – which would have made slaughtering them in numbers sufficient to cause their extinction rather implausible, he says.

E
MacPhee agrees that humans most likely brought about these extinctions (as well as others around the world that coincided with human arrival), but not directly. Rather he suggests that people may have introduced hyper lethal disease, perhaps through their dogs or hitchhiking vermin, which then spread wildly among the immunologically naive species of the New World. As in the overkill model, populations of large mammals would have a harder time recovering. Repeated outbreaks of a hyper disease could thus quickly drive them to the point of no return. So far MacPhee does not have empirical evidence for the hyper disease hypothesis, and it won’t be easy to come by: hyper lethal disease would kill far too quickly to leave its signature on the bones themselves. But he hopes that analyses of tissue and DNA from the last mammoths to perish will eventually reveal murderous microbes.


The third explanation for what brought on this North American extinction does not involve human beings. Instead its proponents blame the loss on the weather. The Pleistocene epoch witnessed considerable climatic instability, explains paleontologist Russell W. Graham of the Denver Museum of Nature and Science. As a result, certain habitats disappeared, and species that had once formed communities split apart. For some animals, this change brought opportunity. For much of the megafauna, however, the increasingly homogeneous environment left them with shrinking geographical ranges – a death sentence for large animals, which need large ranges. Although these creatures managed to maintain viable populations through most of the Pleistocene, the final major fluctuation – the so-called Younger Dryas event – pushed them over the edge, Graham says. For his part, Alroy is convinced that human hunters demolished the titans of the Ice Age. The overkill model explains everything the disease and climate scenarios explain, he asserts, and makes accurate predictions about which species would eventually go extinct. “Personally, I’m a vegetarian,” he remarks, “and I find all of this kind of gross – but believable.”

Questions

Questions 1-7

Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the Reading Passage for each answer.

Write your answers in boxes 1-7 on your answer sheet.

The reason why had big size mammals become extinct 11,000 years ago is under hot debate. First explanation is that 1_________ of human made it happen. This so called 2_________ began from 1960s suggested by an expert, who however received criticism of lack of further information. Another assumption promoted by MacPhee is that deadly to testify its validity. Graham in Pleistocene epoch posed a finally wiped them 3 __________hypothesis required more 4 ___________proposed a third hypothesis that 5___________ drove some species disappear, reduced 6 dangerous signal to these giants, and 7___________ out.

Questions 8-13

Use the information in the passage to match the people (listed A-C) with opinions or deeds below.

Write the appropriate letters A-C in boxes 8-13 on your answer sheet. NB you may use any letter more than once.

  • John Alroy
  • Ross D.E. MacPhee
  • Russell W. Graham

8. _________ Human hunting well explained which species would finally disappear. 

9. _________ Further grounded proof needed to explain human’s indirect impact on mammals

10. _________Over hunting situation has caused die-out of large mammals.

11. _________ Illness rather than hunting caused extensive extinction.

12. _________ Doubt raised through the study of several fossil records.

13. _________ Climate shift is the main reason of extinction.

Answer Key

  1. Hunting
  2. Overkill model
  3. (hyperlethal) disease
  4. Empirical evidence
  5. (considerable) climate instability
  6. Geographical ranges
  7. Younger Dryas event
  8. A
  9. B
  10. A
  11. B
  12. B
  13. C

文中のどこに答えが書いてあったのか詳しく知りたい人は以下のリンクから復習してみてください。

各問の答えの該当箇所を説明しています。

リーディング問題パッセージ1の解答

リーディングのスコア換算

何問正解できましたか?

リーディングのスコア換算表で自分のスコアを確認しましょう。

本当のテストではパッセージ1から3の全40問です。

ほとんどの学習者は6.5または7.0以上を狙っているかと思います。

パッセージ1はできれば3問間違い以内に抑えたいところです

IELTSリーディングの概要

IELTSリーディングは3つのパッセージから構成されています。

パッセージ1から徐々に難易度が上がり、パッセージ1は最も簡単な内容となっています。

内容は、社会科学、人文科学、自然科学の3つから出題される傾向があります。

パッセージ1の解き方

IELTSのリーディングを解く上で、最も重要なことは時間配分です。

問題を解いてみて20分以上使ってしまったという人も多いのではないでしょうか。

IELTSのリーディングはパッセージを読み終えてから回答していると時間切れになります。

リーディングのコツは「 全文読むのではなく、パラグラフから情報を見つける」ことです。

問題文を理解して、解答に当たる部分を探す姿勢で臨みましょう。以下が3つのステップです:

  • ステップ1:問題分からキーワードを暗記
  • ステップ2:パラグラフを上から読み、キーワードに対応する問題を解く
  • ステップ3:全てのパラグラフを読み終えた段階で分からない問題に時間を使う

1つのパラグラフに、答えに関連する情報が1から3つあります。

問題と関係ないパラグラフというのはほとんどありません

IELTSのリーディング難易度

繰り返しになりますが、IELTSのリーディングはパッセージ1から3にかけて難易度が徐々に上がります。

当然のことですが時間が必要になるのは、パッセージ3です。パッセージ1はできるだけ早く解けるよう対策しておきましょう。

パッセージ2のサンプル問題も問いてみたいという人は、下記のリンクから是非チャレンジしてみてください。

IELTS リーディングのサンプル問題 / パッセージ2

英語の「今まで」と「これから」

最短で伸ばすならSolo

SoloはIELTSのスコアを最短で伸ばします。

自分だけで学習できる自信がない人は是非一度カウンセリングに来てみてね。

弊社のIELTSのプロ講師たちが待ってるよ。

0 Comments

Leave a reply

メールアドレスが公開されることはありません。 * が付いている欄は必須項目です

*

CONTACT US

We're not around right now. But you can send us an email and we'll get back to you, asap.

Sending

Log in with your credentials

Forgot your details?