【IELTS対策】リーディング「パッセージ2」のサンプル問題

【IELTS問題】リーディングパッセージ2のサンプル教材

こんにちは!

SOLO IELTS TOEFLルークです。

今回の記事は前回に引き続き「IELTSリーディング『パッセージ2』のサンプル問題」を紹介します。

「これからIELTを受験する方」「IELTSのリーディング問題を解きたい方」は是非、活用してください。

「パッセージ1」比べて若干問題の難易度が高くなります!20分以内に解くことが理想的です!

それでは詳しくみていきましょう。

IELTSリーディング・セクションの概要

リーディング・セクションの概要

以前の記事でも紹介しましたが、IELTSのリーディング・セクションは3つのパッセージから構成されています。以下が簡単な概要です:

パッセージ数3パッセージ
問題数40問(1パッセージにつき13~14問)
試験時間60分
パッセージ形式・ニュースや雑誌に似た文章形式
・書籍からの転記
設問形式10パターンの設問形式からランダムに出題

IELTSのリーディングはパッセージごとに難易度が高くなります。今回の「パッセージ2」は丁度「パッセージ1」と「パッセージ3」の中間の難易度になります。

パッセージごとの設問形式はランダムで、各パッセージで限定された設問形式は出題されません。

つまり設問ごとの回答テクニックを学んでも、実戦ではなかなか活用しにくいということです!

リーディング正答数とスコアの関係

こちらも前回の記事で説明しましたが、リーディングの正答数とスコアの関係は以下のようになっています:

正答数バンドスコア
40-399.0
38-378.5
36-358.0
34-337.5
32-307.0
29-276.5
26-236.0
22-195.5
18-155.0

バンドスコア「7.0」を目指す場合は「パッセージ1」で9割以上「パッセージ2」で8割以上の正解できることが望ましいです。

概算でスコアを算出する場合は「パッセージ2」の正答数を3倍にすることで、概算スコアを算出することができます。

お待たせしました、それではリーディングの問題をみていきましょう。

IELTSリーディング「パッセージ2」サンプル問題

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-26 which are based on Reading Passage 2.

Reading Passage2 – The Robots are Coming

What is the current state of play in Artificial Intelligence?

A.
Can robots advance so far they become the ultimate threat to our existence? Some scientists say no, and dismiss the very idea of Artificial Intelligence. The human brain, they argue, is the most complicated system ever created, and any machine designed to reproduce human thought is bound to fail. Physicist Roger Penrose of Oxford University and others [ = some academics ] believe that machines are physically incapable of human thought = doubt the possibility of creating Artificial Intelligence. Colin McGinn of Rutgers University backs this up when he says that Artificial Intelligence “is like sheep trying to do complicated psychoanalysis. They just don’t have the conceptual equipment (21) they need in their limited brains”.

B.
Artificial Intelligence, or Al, is different from most technologies in that scientists still understand very little about how intelligence works. Physicists have a good understanding of Newtonian mechanics and the quantum theory of atoms and molecules, whereas the basic laws of intelligence remain a mystery. But a sizable number of mathematicians and computer scientists, who are specialists in the area, are optimistic about the possibilities.

To them, it is only a matter of time before a thinking machine walks out of the laboratory. Over the years, various problems have impeded all efforts to create robots. To attack these difficulties, researchers tried to use the ‘top-down approach’, using a computer in an attempt to program all the essential rules onto a single disc. By inserting this into a machine, it would then become self- aware and attain human-like intelligence.

C.
In the 1950s and 1960s, great progress was made, but the shortcomings of these prototype robots soon became clear. They were huge and took hours to navigate across a room. Meanwhile, a fruit fly, with a brain containing only a fraction of the computing power, can effortlessly navigate in three dimensions.

Our brains, like the fruit fly’s, unconsciously recognize what we see by performing countless calculations. This unconscious awareness of patterns is exactly what computers are missing. The second problem is the robots’ lack of common sense. Humans know that water is wet and that mothers are older than their daughters. But there is no mathematics that can express these truths. Children learn the intuitive laws of biology and physics by interacting with the real world. Robots know only what has been programmed into them.

D.
Because of the limitations of the top-down approach to Artificial Intelligence, attempts have been made to use a ‘bottom-up’ approach instead – that is, to try to imitate evolution and the way a baby learns. Rodney Brooks was the director of MIT’s Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, famous for its lumbering ‘top-down’ walking robots. He changed the course of research when he explored the unorthodox idea of tiny ‘insectoid’ robots that learned to walk by bumping into things instead of computing mathematically the precise position of their feet.

Today many of the descendants of Brooks’ insectoid robots are on Mars gathering data for NASA (The National Aeronautics and Space Administration), running across the dusty landscape of the planet. For all their successes in mimicking the behavior of insects, however, robots using neural networks have performed miserably when their programmers have tried to duplicate in them the behavior of higher organisms such as mammals. MIT’s Marvin Minsky summarises the problems of Al: ‘The history of Al is sort of funny because the first real accomplishments were beautiful things, like a machine that could do well in a maths course. But then we started to try to make machines that could answer questions about simple children’s stories. There’s no machine today that can do that.’

E.
There are people who believe that eventually there will be a combination between the top-down and bottom-up, which may provide the key to Artificial Intelligence. As adults, we blend the two approaches. It has been suggested that our emotions represent the quality that most distinguishes us as humans, that it is impossible for machines ever to have emotions. Computer expert Hans Moravec thinks that in the future robots will be programmed with emotions such as fear to protect themselves so that they can signal to humans when their batteries are running low, for example.

Emotions are vital in decision-making. People who have suffered a certain kind of brain injury lose the ability to experience emotions and become unable to make decisions. Without emotions to guide them, they debate endlessly over their options. Moravec points out that as robots become more intelligent and are able to make choices, they could likewise become paralyzed with indecision. To aid them, robots of the future might need to have emotions hardwired into their brains.

F.
There is no universal consensus as to whether machines can be conscious, or even, in human terms, what consciousness means. Minsky suggests the thinking process in our brain is not localized but spread out, with different centers competing with one another at any given time. Consciousness may then be viewed as a sequence of thoughts and images issuing from these different, smaller ‘minds’, each one competing for our attention. Robots might eventually attain a ‘silicon consciousness’.

Robots, in fact, might one day embody an architecture for thinking and processing information that is different from ours – but also indistinguishable. If that happens, the question of whether they really ‘understand’ becomes largely irrelevant. A robot that has perfect mastery of syntax, for all practical purposes, understands what is being said.

Reading Passage2 – Questions

Questions 14-20

Reading Passage 2 has six paragraphs A-F. Which paragraph contains the following information? Write the correct letter A-F in 14-20 on your answer sheet. NB You may use any letter MORE THAN ONCE.

14. An insect that proves the superiority of natural intelligence over Artificial Intelligence

15. Robots being able to benefit from their mistakes

16. Many researchers not being put off believing that Artificial Intelligence will eventually be developed

17. An innovative approach that is having limited success

18. The possibility of creating Artificial Intelligence being doubted by some academics

19. No generally accepted agreement of what our brains do

20. Robots not being able to extend the intelligence in the same way as humans

Questions 21-23

Look at the following people (Questions 21-23) and the list of statements below.  Match each person with the correct statement A-E. Write the correct letter A-E in 21-23 on your answer sheet.

21. Colin McGinn

22. Marvin Minsky

23. Hans Moravec

A. Artificial Intelligence may require something equivalent to feelings in order to succeed.

B. Different kinds of people use different parts of the brain.

C. Tests involving fiction have defeated Artificial Intelligence so far.

D. People have intellectual capacities which do not exist in computers.

E. People have no reason to be frightened of robots

Questions 24-26

Complete the summary below. Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer. Write your answers in 24-26 on your answer sheet.

When will we have a thinking machine?

Despite some advances, early robots had certain weaknesses. They were given the information they needed on a 24._________

This was known as the ‘top-down’ approach and enabled them to do certain tasks but they were unable to recognize 25._________ nor did they have any intuition or ability to make decisions based on experience.

Rodney Brooks tried a different approach. Robots similar to those invented by Brooks are to be found on 26.__________ where they are collecting information.

PDFファイルに上記の問題をまとめたものを以下からダウンロードすることが可能です:

Reading Passage02 – Answer Key

  1. C
  2. D
  3. B
  4. D
  5. A
  6. F
  7. C
  8. D
  9. C
  10. A
  11. disc
  12. patterns
  13. Mars

今回出題された設問形式は「パラグラフ・マッチング」「人物名のマッチング」「要約完成」の3種類が出題されました。

マッチングタイプの設問は、設問内のキーワードと本文のキーワードのパラフレーズを正確に把握することが高得点の鍵になります。

パラフレーズとは、同じ意味の内容を違った語句で表現することを指します。本文と同じキーワードが設問に使用されている場合は注意しましょう!

まとめ

リーディングは精読の精度が鍵

今回の記事のポイントを以下にまとめておきます:

  • ポイント1:リーディング「パッセージ2」は中間レベル
  • ポイント2:20分以内に解けることが理想
  • ポイント3:8割以上の正解数が理想

リーディングで高スコアを取得するために一番重要なことは「精読の精度」です。

精読ができないと、どれだけ文章を速く読めてもスコアは伸びません。「多読」「速読」など勉強法がいろいろありますが、まず第一に精読ができるようになってから、これらの勉強法を実践するようにしましょう。

精読ができないと「感覚的に」英語を読む癖がつき、頭の中でイメージだけが膨らみスコアにムラが出てしまうのです!

今回の記事は以上です。最後までお読みいただきありがとうございました!

続けてリーディング「パッセージ1」「パッセージ3」を解く場合は、以下の記事を参考にしてください:

IELTS対策のお悩みなどがありましたらいつでもご連絡ください!

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