こんにちは、SOLO IELTS TOEFLのルークです。
例: From paragraph 6, which of the following is NOT mentioned as an example of a push factor in migration?
Q.  Unlike animal migration, which typically involves groups of animals moving back and forth between seasonal habitats, human migration involves the movement of people who intend to leave one area for good and settle in a new one. This does not include travel for the purposes of pleasure or business; nor does it include nomadism, which is a decreasingly common lifestyle that involves moving from place to place (often in the search for resources) but with no intention of settling permanently or semi-permanently in any one place.
 Although migration, and “immigration” – or the movement to a new country, is a common feature of the 21st century globalized economy, mass human migration is not limited to modern times. Rather, it is a continually recurring development in human societies. Human migration began with the movement of Homo sapiens throughout the African continent 150,000 years ago, out of Africa 80,000 years ago, and into Asia and Australia 40,000 years ago. Since those first prehistoric migrations, human history the world over has continued to be a story of movement. Traditional history books invariably feature maps of different times showing arrows representing mass migrations. In fact, the history of virtually every part of the world, besides the original site of human evolution in Africa, is tied up with migration.
 Of course, economic development has brought a whole new impetus for human movement, as well as the methods of transport that facilitate it. Beginning with the industrial revolution, people migrated from the countryside to cities to work in the new factories (migration within a country is often called internal migration). This movement marked the beginning of an ever-increasing trend of economic migration, in which people move in search of better employment opportunities or better wages. And today’s global economy, it is unsurprising to find groups of hard-working immigrants remitting money home, where job prospects are slimmer and lower-paying.
 Migrating in search of employment is only one of what is known as “pull” factors in migration theory. Pull factors are those attractive aspects of a destination country – or region – that are appealing to migrants. Of course, employment and money are common pull factors, but so is an overall higher standard of living. This explains, in part, why much human migration takes place from less developed to more developed economies or regions. The reason seems obvious: people go where life is better (or perceived to be better, since migrants face a whole new set of obstacles in their new homes that they may not have anticipated). It is not only immediate job prospects that are attractive, but also the education that can enhance future employment opportunities. A better standard of living may include pull factors related to health and safety; for example, many people resettle for better medical care and overall greater safety to life and person.
 Jobs and money are economic factors in migration. But the idea of safety leads us into other general reasons for migration. Safety may be related either to environmental factors, or sociopolitical factors. That is, migrants may see their destination as providing an environment that is more stable and safer than the one they are leaving, or they may be seeking a political system that is less arbitrary or authoritarian, with greater assurances of civil liberty and basic protection. But it is wrong to think that migrations take place only out of a sense of urgency about security; consider the mass of North American senior citizens who, in their retirement, choose to migrate to locations with warmer weather. It’s not that their life is at imminent risk in a place with four seasons, but simply that they prefer sunnier climes. Of course, implicit in any decision to migrate is a comparison between two places: seeking a place of greater freedom, or better weather, means escaping a place of lesser freedom, or worse weather, which brings us to “push” factors in migration.
 Push factors are those related to the area or country that a migrant is leaving. That is, they are aspects of a place that make people want to leave it (in some cases, they are forced to leave). Many push factors are economic, including lack of job opportunities and rampant inflation. Others may be sociopolitical, such as cruel or authoritarian governments, leaders, or political systems that mistreat their citizens or rely on torture and repression to inspire fear. Environmental push factors may include natural disasters, or the possibility of them, including tropical storms, earthquakes, floods, and drought. Still other factors may be cultural.
From paragraph 6, which of the following is NOT mentioned as an example of a push factor in migration?
B. Cruel government
C. Natural disasters
D. Job opportunities
問をみると、push factorがキーワードだとわかります。まずはPush fireが何かを把握する必要があるのです。
パラグラフ6に、Push fireとは” push factors are those related to the area or country that a migrant is leaving…That is, they are aspects of a place that make people want to leave it.”と書かれていました。
A、B、Cは全てpush factorであると分かります。Dは文中に’ a lack of ‘ job opportunititesと書かれているため事実と反しています。
Q.  The United States as we know it today, a collection of 48 contiguous states plus Alaska and Hawaii, would not have been possible without the great westward migration of the 19th century and the farmers who made it happen. The movement essentially began in 1803 when President Thomas Jefferson accomplished the Louisiana Purchase, buying an enormous stretch of land from France for 15 million dollars. This land effectively doubled the size of the country, and provided an enormous opportunity for enterprising and hardworking farmers, both new and experienced.
 However, it was not only Jefferson’s purchase and his encouragement which fuelled westward migration. After the War of 1812, there was a great rise in prices of agricultural commodities. This motivated many non-farmers to take up agriculture, and pulled settlers westward into the new territories to find more arable land. This movement was facilitated by advances in transportation and roads. As America’s agricultural front expanded, the entire population of the American west expanded as well.
 Thousands of settlers moved to the west, increasing the population west of the Appalachian Mountains by more than four-hundred percent. Besides farmers, the migrants included tradesmen, and artisans, all with the same goal: to have a more successful life. Many of the migrants were newly arrived Europeans, whose families had lived in the same areas for centuries. Through changes in politics, religion, and economics, these immigrants chose to leave their roots for new American soil. Unlike Europe, where social status was inherited, America provided greater opportunity to change one’s social standing through hard word, luck, and intelligence.
All of the following are mentioned as contributinig to increased westward migration in the United States, EXCEPT
A. Increase in prices of agricultural products
B. Better transport and roads
C. Opportunity to improve one’s social standing
D. Better weather and climate
ステップ1により問のキーワードがcontributing factor to migration of peopleだと分かります。
Aはパラグラフ2の2,3行目に”great rise in prices of agricultural commodities led to an enthusiastic migration of people to the west to start farms.”です。
Bは4,5行目の”this migration … was facilitated by advances in transportation and roads.”にあたります。
Cはパラグラフ3の” unlike Europe, where people had to inherit social status, a greater opportunity existed in the migration to the west to change one’s social standing through hard work, luck, and intelligence.”です。
price in commodities / transport development / social standingのキーワード特定が鍵でした