【IELTS問題】リーディングパッセージ3のサンプル教材

【IELTS問題】リーディングパッセージ3のサンプル教材

こんにちは、SOLO IELTS TOEFLのルークです。

このブログではIELTSのリーディングのサンプル問題パッセージ3を一緒に解いていきましょう。

パッセージ3は以前はIELTSのリーディングの中では最難関です

リーディングパッセージ3教材

以下がIELTSリーディングパッセージ3の教材になります。制限時間20分を厳守して解いてみましょう。

You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27 – 40 which are based on Reading Passage 3.

Mysterious Dark Matter May Not Always Have Been Dark

Dark matter particles may have interacted extensively with normal matter long ago, when the universe was very hot, a new study suggests. The nature of dark matter is currently one of the greatest mysteries in science. The invisible substance — which is detectable via its gravitational influence on “normal” matter – is thought to make up five-sixths of all matter in the universe.

Astronomers began suspecting the existence of dark matter when they noticed the cosmos seemed to possess more mass than stars could account for. For example, stars circle the center of the Milky Way so fast that they should overcome the gravitational pull of the galaxy’s core and zoom into the intergalactic void. Most scientists think dark matter provides the gravity that helps hold these stars back. Astronomers know more about what dark matter is not than what it actually is.

Scientists have mostly ruled out all known ordinary materials as candidates for dark matter. The consensus so far is that this missing mass is made up of new species of particles that interact only very weakly with ordinary matter. One potential clue about the nature of dark matter has to do with the fact that it’s five times more abundant than normal matter, researchers said.

“This may seem a lot, and it is, but if dark and ordinary matter were generated in a completely independent way, then this number is puzzling,” said study co- author Pavlos Vranas, a particle physicist at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California. “Instead of five, it could have been a million or a billion. Why five?” The researchers suggest a possible solution to this puzzle: Dark matter particles once interacted often with normal matter, even though they barely do so now. “This may have happened in the early universe, when the temperature was very high — so high that both ordinary and dark matter were ‘melted’ in a plasma state made up of their ingredients”.

The protons and neutrons making up atomic nuclei are themselves each made up of a trio of particles known as quarks. The researchers suggest dark matter is also made of a composite “stealth” particle, which is composed of a quartet of component particles and is difficult to detect (like a stealth airplane). The scientists’ supercomputer simulations suggest these composite particles may have masses ranging up to more than 200 billion electron-volts, which is about 213 times a proton’s mass. Quarks each possess fractional electrical charges of positive or negative one-third or two-thirds. In protons, these add up to a positive charge, while in neutrons, the result is a neutral charge. Quarks are confined within protons and neutrons by the so-called “strong interaction.”

The researchers suggest that the component particles making up stealth dark matter particles each have a fractional charge of positive or negative one-half, held together by a “dark form” of the strong interaction. Stealth dark matter particles themselves would only have a neutral charge, leading them to interact very weakly at best with ordinary matter, light, electric fields and magnetic fields. The researchers suggest that at the extremely high temperatures seen in the newborn universe, the electrically charged components of stealth dark matter particles could have interacted with ordinary matter. However, once the universe cooled, a new, powerful and as yet unknown force might have bound these component particles together tightly to form electrically neutral composites. Stealth dark matter particles should be stable — not decaying over eons, if at all, much like protons. However, the researchers suggest the components making up stealth dark matter particles can form different unstable composites that decay shortly after their creation. “For example, one could have composite particles made out of just two component particles,” Vranas said.

These unstable particles might have masses of about 100 billion electron-volts or more, and could be created by particle accelerators such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) beneath the France-Switzerland border. They could also have an electric charge and be visible to particle detectors, Vranas said. Experiments at the LHC, or sensors designed to spot rare instances of dark matter colliding with ordinary matter, “may soon find evidence of, or rule out, this new stealth dark matter theory,” Vranas said in a statement. If stealth dark matter exists, future research can investigate whether there are any effects it might have on the cosmos.

“Are there any signals in the sky that telescopes may find?” Vranas said. “In order to answer these questions, our calculations will require larger supercomputing resources. Fortunately, supercomputing development is progressing fast towards higher computational speeds.” The scientists, the Lattice Strong Dynamics Collaboration, will detail their findings in an upcoming issue of the journal Physical Review Letters.

Questions 27-34

Complete the sentences below.

Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer. 
Write your answers in 27-34 on your answer sheet.

One of the greatest mysteries in science is the nature of the 27.__________

All known material has been mostly 28.___________   as candidates for dark matter.

Dark matter is a lot more 29.________________   than normal matter.

Due to high temperature, both ordinary and dark matter were ‘melted’ in a 30.______________

It is confirmed that quarks are within protons and neutrons by 31._______________

It is suggested that stealth dark matter particle would only have a 32._______________

Experiments at the LHC may soon find 33._______________ of the new stealth dark matter theory.
To answer questions, we require 34._______________ resources .

Questions 35-39

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 3? In 35–39 on your answer sheet, write

YES If the statement is True
NO If the statement is false
NOT GIVEN If the statement is not given in the passage

35. The nature of dark matter is a mystery.
36. It is likely that dark matter consists of ordinary materials.
37. Quarks have neither positive nor negative charge.
38. Protons are not stable.
39. Dark matter has a serious impact on the cosmos.

Question 40

Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D. 

40. Passage 3 is:
A a scientific article
B a sci-fi article
C a short sketch
D an article from a magazine

Answer

  1. dark matter
  2. ruled out
  3. Abundant
  4. plasma state
  5. strong interaction
  6. neutral charge
  7. Evidence
  8. larger supercomputer
  9. True
  10. NO
  11. NO
  12. NO
  13. Not Given
  14. A

リーディング問題の解説

本文中のどこに解答箇所があったか詳しく知りたい人は以下のリンクから復習してみてください。

各問の答えの該当箇所を説明しています:

リーディング問題パッセージ3の解答箇所

リーディングのスコア換算

結果はどうだったでしょうか?

まずはリーディングのスコア換算表で自分のおおよそのスコアを確認しましょう。

もしその他のパッセージ問題を解いてないよという人がいたら下記から解いてみてください。3つのパッセージの合計点からBAND SCOREが算出されます。

今回はPassage3の全14問のリーディングテストでした。

パッセージ3は最難関ですが如何だったでしょうか。5問間違い以内の人は上出来です。

目指すべき スコア

海外の大学(院)進学だとほとんどが6.0~6.5以上です。

またはMBAですと7.0以上が基準となっている所が多いかと思います。そういった意味でリーディングはできれば7.0をとりたいところです。

7.0をとるためには40問中30問の正解が必要となるので、パッセージ1と2で合わせて5問間違い、パッセージ3で5問間違いぐらいが許容範囲となります。

※マレーシアの大学進学ならIELTS5.5で可能です。海外大学に進学したい人は以下の記事を参照にしてください。

海外大学の進学方法 / 総費用 <英語圏決定版>

リーディング解き方

全パーセージを60分で解く必要があります。つまり各パッセージは20分です。

非ネイティブが20分以内に解答するためにはテクニックが必要です。

具体的には、以下3点の順にて行うよう解きます:

  • 手順1:まず問を確認する
  • 手順2:パラグラフを1つ読み終えるごとに答えられる問に答える
  • 手順3:最後に解けなかった問に全時間を投入する

言い方を変えると各パラグラフ内で答え探しをするような感じです。

通常は各パラグラフに1-3つの答えが潜んでいます。当然例外もあります。

例えば今回のパッセージ3の問題ですとパラグラフ5に4つも解答が潜んでいました。一方でパラグラフ2には1つも答えがありませんでした。

リーディング単語の覚え方

結論からいうと、短い時間で1日に何度も単語を音読しよう。

IELTSのリーディングは最後は単語の数がものをいいます。通常の学習者はおよそ追加で3000-5000語ほどを覚えようとしているのではないでしょうか?

おそらく人生で覚えた単語数が5000語ほどかと思います。
中高で3500単語+自身でTOEICや英検などから2000ほど覚えたという人が標準かと思います。

人生で覚えた単語と同数の単語を短期で覚えるためにはどうすればよいのか?
5分 x 7-10セット/日で行うと可能です。

これはエビングハウスの忘却曲線に則った考え方です。

簡単にいうと、人間は忘れる生き物。長時間同じ単語を眺めても効果はあまりないので忘れたものをどんどん覚え直そうという方法です。

1日300単語を10日でまわして3往復させると1か月で3000語も覚えられれます。

トイレにいくときも、ベッドにいくときも、散歩にいくときも、電車にのるときも、片時も単語本と離れずに生活してください。

IELTSの実践問題を解く中で単語は覚えるのが最も効果的だと思います。

単語だけを単体で覚えてもいざパッセージで見つけると意味がとれないからです。

【単語の増やし方と覚え方】 IELTSリーディング対策

英語の「今まで」と「これから」

最短で伸ばすならSolo

SoloはIELTSのスコアを最短で伸ばします。

自分だけで学習できる自信がない人は是非一度カウンセリングに来てみてね。

弊社のIELTSのプロ講師たちが待ってるよ。

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