【TOEFL iBT対策】リーディングのサンプル問題に挑戦してみよう

【TOEFL IBT対策】リーディングのサンプル問題と解説

こんにちは!SOLO IELTS TOEFLルークです!

今回の記事は「TOEFL iBTリーディングセクションのサンプル問題」を紹介します。

これからTOEFL受験を考えている方」や「TOEFLのリーディング問題を一つでも多く解きたい方」の役に立てば幸いです。

TOEFL iBTリーディングセクションのトピックは、アカデミック領域に関連する内容がほとんどです。つまり高い語彙力がないと、安定したスコアが取得できないので注意しましょう。

リーディングは「少し難しい」くらいの難易度が最適です。問題が難しすぎる場合は、少し難易度を下げてリーディングの勉強しましょう!

それでは早速、実際のリーディング問題を見てみましょう。

TOEFL iBTリーディングのサンプル問題

リーディング問題の学習方法

リーディングの学習は、以下の手順で行うと学習効果が高いです:

  • 手順1:サンプル問題を解く
    (この時に、100%確証がない問題にはマークをつける)
  • 手順2:答え合わせする
  • 手順3:パッセージ内の分からない単語を全て調べる
  • 手順4:パッセージ内の正確に訳せない文章を精読する
  • 手順5:間違えた問題 or 正解だったけど分からない問題をもう一度解く
  • 手順6:1日2-3回、音読する

ポイントは解答する時に「曖昧さ」を排除することです。「なんとなく」で正解した問題では勉強の意味がありません。必ず明確な理由がわかった状態で回答するようにしましょう。

さて学習手順がわかったところで、さっそくサンプル問題を解いてみましょう。

理想とする回答時間は「約20分」です。それでは、頑張ってくださいね!

PDFでプリントアウトして問題を解きたい場合は、以下のリンクよりPDFをダウンロードできます:

リーディング問題 – Stone Age Agriculture

[1] While the use of stone tools began 2.5 million years ago, it wasn’t until about 10,000 BCE that Homo sapiens applied these tools to the deliberate cultivation of plants and animals. The adoption of sustained agriculture – what anthropologists call the “Neolithic revolution” – signifies an important turning point in the development of human societies, as it led directly to population growth, permanent or semi-permanent settlement, as well as technological and social development. 

[2] Neolithic agriculture developed at different times in different parts of the world, beginning with the Levant and Mesopotamia, followed by Northern Africa, Southeast Asia, and Europe. But while we often call it a “revolution,” it would be a mistake to believe that agriculture was a sudden and complete development, an all or nothing proposition that societies adopted wholesale at the first opportunity. Instead, it developed slowly, beginning as a supplement to more traditional hunting and gathering lifestyles in which people relied on plants and animals gathered or hunted in their natural environment. Over time, as people learned more about and relied more greatly on domesticated plants and animals, they settled more permanently and cultivated the land more intensively. 

[3] Neolithic farmers collected and planted seeds that they learned would produce palatable grains, selectively breeding plants that were deemed healthy and delicious, and avoiding those that were not. █ [A] Early agriculture was restricted to a limited number of plants, namely Emmer wheat, Einkorn wheat, and barley.  █ [B] Later, people learned to cultivate pulses, including lentils, peas, chickpeas, and bitter vetch, as well as the multi-purpose flax plant. █ [C] Together, these eight plant species are known as the Neolithic founder crops or primary domesticates.  █ [D].

[4] People’s success in planting, cultivating, and harvesting these plants came about as a result not only of their increased knowledge of the plants themselves but also of the conditions for growth. They explored innovative irrigation techniques, which enabled even greater production and, eventually, food surpluses. Of course, food surpluses are useless unless people have the ability and facilities to store them, which people did in granaries. And food surpluses, in turn, enabled a host of other social developments, like occupational specialization (since not everyone had to be involved in food production), trade, and social stratification. 

[5] These advances in agriculture went hand in hand with technological development. People fashioned stone tools such as hoes for working soil, sickle blades for harvesting the crops, and grinding stones for processing the grains. More important than such agricultural implements, however, was the polished stone ax, which allowed the Neolithic farmers to clear forests on a large scale and open up new lands for cultivation. Along with the adze, the ax also enabled them to work the trees they felled into the wood that was usable for building shelter and other structures. 

[6] Besides cultivating plants, these stone-age farmers also domesticated animals. At first, it was sheep, goats, and dogs whose temperament, diet, and mating patterns made them good candidates for domestication. Later, cows and pigs were added to the mix. Besides meat, these animals provided people with milk (a renewable source of protein), leather, wool, and fertilizer. Cows became valued for their labor, as they assisted with plowing and towing, and dogs provided protection (not only to humans but also to their crops and livestock) as well as companionship. 

[7] That agriculture enabled hitherto unknown population growth is undeniable. Food surpluses and an agricultural lifestyle brought security and safety that nomadic hunter-gatherers did not enjoy. And it may be argued that the subsequent advances in all realms of society – not only the aforementioned technology but also knowledge, art, writing, astronomy – would not have emerged without a sedentary lifestyle. But the impact of the Neolithic revolution, often heralded as a giant step forward for humankind, was not all positive. 

[8] Sedentary agriculture narrowed the diet of Neolithic peoples: they consumed greater amounts of starch and plant protein and fewer types of food overall. An increasing number of researchers are claiming that human nutrition became worse with the Neolithic revolution. In addition, the disease increased, as humans lived in closer contact with each other and with domesticated animals; sanitation didn’t advance quite as quickly as agricultural methods. It also turns out that agriculture required significantly more labor than hunting and gathering. The combined result of these facts was a life expectancy that was most likely shorter than that of the apparently more primitive hunter-gatherers.

Questions

Q1. Which of the following best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence?

Incorrect answer choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

But while we often call it a “revolution,” it would be a mistake to believe that agriculture was a sudden and complete development, an all or nothing proposition that societies adopted wholesale at the first opportunity.

  1. The word “revolution” is somewhat misleading because agriculture was not adopted all at once.
  2. Agriculture was an opportunity for sudden and rapid development, which is why we call it a “revolution.”
  3. Although agriculture is called a “revolution,” it turned out to be a mistake for those societies that adopted it quickly and completely.
  4. Traditional beliefs about the adoption of agriculture have been recently transformed into what is known as a “revolution.”

Q2. Examine the four █ in the third paragraph and indicate at which block the following sentence could be inserted into the passage:

Early farming came about as people observed and experimented with plant reproduction.

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

Q3. The word ‘them’ in paragraph 4 refers to:

  1. People.
  2. Facilities.
  3. Food surpluses.
  4. Techniques.

Q.4 Which of the following can be inferred from the information in paragraph 4?

  1. Pre-agricultural societies tended to have less division of labor than farming peoples.
  2. Food surpluses led to considerable conflict both within and between agricultural societies.
  3. Success in farming was dependent on materials and knowledge obtained from outside one’s own region.
  4. Granaries were owned and controlled by the farmers themselves, despite social stratification.

Q.5 According to the author, which of the following was most critical in the development of intensive agriculture?

  1. The adze
  2. The ax
  3. The sickle
  4. The hoe

Q. 6According to paragraph 6, which of the following is true about domesticated animals?

  1. They served a variety of purposes for Neolithic farmers.
  2. They were limited to animals that could produce milk, leather, wool, or fertilizer.
  3. Their domestication predates the domestication of plant species.
  4. They consumed much of the food surpluses generated through the cultivation of plants.

Q.7 The primary purpose of paragraph 7 is to

  1. Summarize previously mentioned benefits of the Neolithic revolution.
  2. Introduce the negative impacts of the advent of agriculture.
  3. Provide examples of other important developments that rivaled the Neolithic revolution in importance.
  4. Outline the necessary preconditions for the development of agriculture.

Q.8 The word ‘heralded’ in paragraph 7 is closest in meaning to:

  1. Criticized
  2. Dismissed
  3. Celebrated
  4. Defined

Q.9 All of the following are mentioned as negative impacts of the Neolithic revolution EXCEPT that

  1. People suffered from more illness as a result of poor sanitation.
  2. Farming required harder work than previous modes of food production.
  3. There was more competition in society for certain types of resources.
  4. People lacked diversity in the foods they ate.

Q. 10 An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below.

Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage.

Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

  1. People learned to cultivate a number of different plants, using innovative tools and techniques. 
  2. Agriculture appeared in different parts of the world at different times, beginning with the Levant and finally in Europe. 
  3. The food surpluses that agriculture enabled other developments but had an overall negative impact on human health. 
  4. Not all hunter-gatherer groups in the Neolithic period adopted an agricultural lifestyle, as some peoples found it advantageous to maintain their traditional ways. 
  5. Neolithic farmers domesticated a variety of animals, which provided additional food sources as well as labor and protection. 
  6. Besides agricultural tools, people devised implements that helped them build a variety of structures.

Answers

  • Q1. A
  • Q2. A
  • Q3. C
  • Q4. A
  • Q5. B
  • Q6. A
  • Q7. B
  • Q8. C
  • Q9. C
  • Q10. E / C / A

リーディングサンプル問題の解説

さて、問題はいかがでしたか。

正答率が高かった人も、低かった人も、復習からが勉強の始まりです。

分からなかった問題、感覚で解いた問題は、必ず説明できるまで理解できるように落とし込みましょう。

勉強は「復習」から始まりです。他の人に説明できるレベルまで、しっかりと理解していきましょう

Q1. 文章の解釈問題

文章の解釈問題は、本文を読む必要がありません。

指示された文章を、丁寧に訳して選択肢と照らし合わせましょう。ポイントは、以下の2つです:

  • 代名詞を明確にすること
  • 文章の要点を抑えること

今あげたポイントを意識しながら、先ほどの文章をもう一度みてみましょう。

But while we often call it a “revolution,” it would be a mistake to believe that agriculture was a sudden and complete development, an all or nothing proposition

最初の「it」は、前文を指します。つまり、新石器時代の農業形態が、世界各地で進化してきたということですね。

そして、次の「it」は、「to believe + 以下の文」を指します。

「believe」の目的語として機能しているのは、「agriculture was a sudden and complete development」と「an all or nothing proposition that societies adopted wholesale at the first opportunity.」の2つです。

Q2. 文章の挿入問題

文章の挿入問題も、本文を読む必要はありません。

該当するパラグラフを最初から順に読んで、前後のつじつまが合う部分に、指示された文章を挿入します。

ポイントは、こちらも「代名詞を明確にすること」と「文章のロジック」の2点です。

Q3. Q8 類似語彙の選択問題

これらの問題も、本文を読む必要はありません。文脈から意味を推測するだけで、答えられるからです。

しかし選択肢の語彙を知らない場合は、正答率は下がります。

というか、選択肢の語彙が理解できないと答えることができません

語彙を知っていれば、ほぼ確実に正解することができるので、日々の単語学習が大切ですね。

Q4. 解釈を聞く問題

解釈を聞く問題は、本文中に明確な答えとなる情報が出ていません。

パラグラフのトピックセンテンスから、要点を抑える必要があります。

以下が、パラグラフのトピックセンテンスです。丁寧に訳してみましょう。

People’s success in planting, cultivating, and harvesting these plants came about as a result not only of their increased knowledge of the plants themselves but also of the conditions for growth.

Q.5 Q6. 詳細な情報を聞く問題

詳細な情報を聞く問題は、質問文を正しく読み解きましょう。

今回のQ.5の質問文は、以下のことを聞いています。

According to the author, which of the following was most critical in the development of intensive agriculture?

「most critical in the development of intensive agriculture」と、書いてありますね。類似の情報を本文から探すと、以下の文がありました。

More important than such agricultural implements, however, was the polished stone ax, which allowed the Neolithic farmers to clear forests on a large scale and open up new lands for cultivation.

質問を正しく読み解いて、類似の情報を本文から探す。くれぐれも、最初からパラグラフを読み返さないように、注意しましょう。

Q6.も同じプロセスで、解いてみてください。

Q7. 目的を聞く問題

指定されたパラグラフの、トピックセンテンスを正しく理解します。

基本的に英語は「But」「However」のあとは、前文を打ち消して重要な情報が書かれています。

パラグラフ7の「But」以下は、以下の文章が書かれています。

But the impact of the Neolithic revolution, often heralded as a giant step forward for humankind, was not all positive.

上記の文を丁寧に訳してみましょう。

Q9. 例外を聞く問題

例外を聞く問題は、基本的に情報が羅列されています。

今回の場合は、「negative impacts of the Neolithic revolution」について、情報が羅列されている部分を読み解きます。

今回の場合は、パラグラフ8ですね。時間をかけて、ゆっくり読み込んでみましょう。

Q.10 要約問題

要約問題は、全ての文章を読む必要はありませんが、各パラグラフの要点を理解することが求められます。

選択肢が部分的な情報なのか、トピックセンテンスに関連する情報なのかを分類することが重要です。

最後に

復習を繰り返して着実に英語力を伸ばそう

さて、いかがでしたか。

リーディングは過去問を解く、しっかり復習する。ことを繰り返せば、着実にスコアが伸びていきます。

何度も書きますが、復習が超重要です!

私たちは、答え合わせをして満足しがちですが、そこで自分に厳しく、分からないことを分かるまで理解することが大切です。

それではTOEFL勉強頑張ってください!

またTOEFL対策で何かお悩みがあればいつでもご連絡ください!

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