TOEFL iBTサンプルテストを公開!自分の現在のスコアを確認できるよ

【TOEFL IBT対策】リーディングのサンプル問題と解説

この記事では、TOEFL iBTのサンプルテストを通しで解きます。おおよそのスコアまで把握できるようにしています。

様々なウェブサイトで各セクションのサンプル問題は用意されていますが、通しで解答できるものや現状の全体スコアを把握できるものがありません。

TOEFLの本番まで時間がなくてiBTの形式に慣れたい人、参考書が手元にない人、現状のスコアを知りたい人などにおすすめです。

TOEFL iBTの概要

TOEFL iBTはリーディング、リスニング、スピーキング、ライティングの4技能を図るETS社が作成しているテストです。

各セクション30点満点の計120点のテストとなっています。

目的としては、海外大学、大学院への留学に際して授業についていけるのかを診断するテストです。

世界の中での自分の英語のレベルが分かるということで実力試しで受験する人も増えてきていますね

TOEFL iBTテストの流れ

それではTOEFL iBTのサンプルテストを解く前にテストの流れを確認しておきましょう。

  • リーディング (54-72分)
    問題数: 30-40問 | 3または4パッセージ
  • リスニング (41-57分 )
    問題数: 計28-39問 | 5から7題
  • 10分休息
  • スピーキング (17分)
    問題数: 4問
  • ライティング (50分)
    問題数: 2問

リーディングとリスニングは本番ではダミー問題という採点されない問題が含まれているため時間がずれています。

この記事のサンプルテストでは、ダミー問題は含まずにリーディングは54分30問、リスニングは41分28問としましょう。

本番同様時間を厳守して連続して解くことをオススメします

リーディング

それではTOEFL iBTリーディングです。
パッセージ3つ30問を54分で解いてください。

紙と鉛筆を用意して紙に問題番号1-30までを書いてくださいね

Passage1:

Stone Age Agriculture

[1] While the use of stone tools began 2.5 million years ago, it wasn’t until about 10,000 BCE that Homo sapiens applied these tools to the deliberate cultivation of plants and animals. The adoption of sustained agriculture – what anthropologists call the “Neolithic revolution” – signifies an important turning point in the development of human societies, as it led directly to population growth, permanent or semi-permanent settlement, as well as technological and social development. 

[2] Neolithic agriculture developed at different times in different parts of the world, beginning with the Levant and Mesopotamia, followed by Northern Africa, Southeast Asia, and Europe. But while we often call it a “revolution,” it would be a mistake to believe that agriculture was a sudden and complete development, an all or nothing proposition that societies adopted wholesale at the first opportunity. Instead, it developed slowly, beginning as a supplement to more traditional hunting and gathering lifestyles in which people relied on plants and animals gathered or hunted in their natural environment. Over time, as people learned more about and relied more greatly on domesticated plants and animals, they settled more permanently and cultivated the land more intensively. 

[3] Neolithic farmers collected and planted seeds that they learned would produce palatable grains, selectively breeding plants that were deemed healthy and delicious, and avoiding those that were not. █ [A] Early agriculture was restricted to a limited number of plants, namely Emmer wheat, Einkorn wheat, and barley.  █ [B] Later, people learned to cultivate pulses, including lentils, peas, chickpeas, and bitter vetch, as well as the multi-purpose flax plant. █ [C] Together, these eight plant species are known as the Neolithic founder crops or primary domesticates.  █ [D].

[4] People’s success in planting, cultivating, and harvesting these plants came about as a result not only of their increased knowledge of the plants themselves but also of the conditions for growth. They explored innovative irrigation techniques, which enabled even greater production and, eventually, food surpluses. Of course, food surpluses are useless unless people have the ability and facilities to store them, which people did in granaries. And food surpluses, in turn, enabled a host of other social developments, like occupational specialization (since not everyone had to be involved in food production), trade, and social stratification. 

[5] These advances in agriculture went hand in hand with technological development. People fashioned stone tools such as hoes for working soil, sickle blades for harvesting the crops, and grinding stones for processing the grains. More important than such agricultural implements, however, was the polished stone ax, which allowed the Neolithic farmers to clear forests on a large scale and open up new lands for cultivation. Along with the adze, the ax also enabled them to work the trees they felled into the wood that was usable for building shelter and other structures. 

[6] Besides cultivating plants, these stone-age farmers also domesticated animals. At first, it was sheep, goats, and dogs whose temperament, diet, and mating patterns made them good candidates for domestication. Later, cows and pigs were added to the mix. Besides meat, these animals provided people with milk (a renewable source of protein), leather, wool, and fertilizer. Cows became valued for their labor, as they assisted with plowing and towing, and dogs provided protection (not only to humans but also to their crops and livestock) as well as companionship. 

[7] That agriculture enabled hitherto unknown population growth is undeniable. Food surpluses and an agricultural lifestyle brought security and safety that nomadic hunter-gatherers did not enjoy. And it may be argued that the subsequent advances in all realms of society – not only the aforementioned technology but also knowledge, art, writing, astronomy – would not have emerged without a sedentary lifestyle. But the impact of the Neolithic revolution, often heralded as a giant step forward for humankind, was not all positive. 

[8] Sedentary agriculture narrowed the diet of Neolithic peoples: they consumed greater amounts of starch and plant protein and fewer types of food overall. An increasing number of researchers are claiming that human nutrition became worse with the Neolithic revolution. In addition, the disease increased, as humans lived in closer contact with each other and with domesticated animals; sanitation didn’t advance quite as quickly as agricultural methods. It also turns out that agriculture required significantly more labor than hunting and gathering. The combined result of these facts was a life expectancy that was most likely shorter than that of the apparently more primitive hunter-gatherers.

Questions

Q1. Which of the following best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence?

Incorrect answer choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

But while we often call it a “revolution,” it would be a mistake to believe that agriculture was a sudden and complete development, an all or nothing proposition that societies adopted wholesale at the first opportunity.

  1. The word “revolution” is somewhat misleading because agriculture was not adopted all at once.
  2. Agriculture was an opportunity for sudden and rapid development, which is why we call it a “revolution.”
  3. Although agriculture is called a “revolution,” it turned out to be a mistake for those societies that adopted it quickly and completely.
  4. Traditional beliefs about the adoption of agriculture have been recently transformed into what is known as a “revolution.”

Q2. Examine the four █ in the third paragraph and indicate at which block the following sentence could be inserted into the passage:

Early farming came about as people observed and experimented with plant reproduction.

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

Q3. The word ‘them’ in paragraph 4 refers to:

  1. People.
  2. Facilities.
  3. Food surpluses.
  4. Techniques.

Q.4 Which of the following can be inferred from the information in paragraph 4?

  1. Pre-agricultural societies tended to have less division of labor than farming peoples.
  2. Food surpluses led to considerable conflict both within and between agricultural societies.
  3. Success in farming was dependent on materials and knowledge obtained from outside one’s own region.
  4. Granaries were owned and controlled by the farmers themselves, despite social stratification.

Q.5 According to the author, which of the following was most critical in the development of intensive agriculture?

  1. The adze
  2. The ax
  3. The sickle
  4. The hoe

Q. 6According to paragraph 6, which of the following is true about domesticated animals?

  1. They served a variety of purposes for Neolithic farmers.
  2. They were limited to animals that could produce milk, leather, wool, or fertilizer.
  3. Their domestication predates the domestication of plant species.
  4. They consumed much of the food surpluses generated through the cultivation of plants.

Q.7 The primary purpose of paragraph 7 is to

  1. Summarize previously mentioned benefits of the Neolithic revolution.
  2. Introduce the negative impacts of the advent of agriculture.
  3. Provide examples of other important developments that rivaled the Neolithic revolution in importance.
  4. Outline the necessary preconditions for the development of agriculture.

Q.8 The word ‘heralded’ in paragraph 7 is closest in meaning to:

  1. Criticized
  2. Dismissed
  3. Celebrated
  4. Defined

Q.9 All of the following are mentioned as negative impacts of the Neolithic revolution EXCEPT that

  1. People suffered from more illness as a result of poor sanitation.
  2. Farming required harder work than previous modes of food production.
  3. There was more competition in society for certain types of resources.
  4. People lacked diversity in the foods they ate.

Q. 10 An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below.

Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage.

Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

  1. People learned to cultivate a number of different plants, using innovative tools and techniques. 
  2. Agriculture appeared in different parts of the world at different times, beginning with the Levant and finally in Europe. 
  3. The food surpluses that agriculture enabled other developments but had an overall negative impact on human health. 
  4. Not all hunter-gatherer groups in the Neolithic period adopted an agricultural lifestyle, as some peoples found it advantageous to maintain their traditional ways. 
  5. Neolithic farmers domesticated a variety of animals, which provided additional food sources as well as labor and protection. 
  6. Besides agricultural tools, people devised implements that helped them build a variety of structures.

Passage 2:

Spanish Exploration of the Americas

[1] The Spanish established the first European settlements in the Americas beginning in the Caribbean and, by 1600, extending throughout Central and South America. Thousands of Spaniards ​flocked to​ the Americas seeking wealth and status. The most famous of these Spanish adventurers is also the most controversial, Christopher Columbus, who, though Italian himself, explored on behalf of the Spanish monarchs.

[2] The history of Spanish exploration begins with the history of Spain itself. During the fifteenth century, Spain hoped to gain advantage over its rival, Portugal. The marriage of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile in 1469 unified Catholic Spain and began the process of building a nation that could compete for worldwide power. Since the 700s, much of Spain had been under Islamic rule, and King Ferdinand II and Queen Isabella I, were determined to defeat the Muslims in Granada, the last Islamic stronghold in Spain. In 1492, they completed the centuries-long Christian conquest of the Spanish territory. This marked another step forward in the process of making Spain a European power, and Ferdinand and Isabella were now ready to look further afield.

[3] Their goals were to expand Catholicism and to gain a commercial advantage over Portugal. To those ends, Ferdinand and Isabella sponsored extensive Atlantic exploration. Spain’s most famous explorer, Christopher Columbus, was actually from Italy. He believed that, using calculations based on other mariners’ journeys, he could chart a westward route to India, which could be used to expand European trade and spread Christianity. Starting in 1485, he approached Portuguese, English, and Spanish monarchs, asking for ships and funding to explore this westward route. All those he petitioned—including Ferdinand and Isabella at first—rebuffed him; their nautical experts all concurred that Columbus’s estimates of the width of the Atlantic Ocean were far too low. However, after three years of pleas, and, more important, the completion of the war with the Muslims, Ferdinand and Isabella agreed to finance Columbus’s expedition in 1492, supplying him with three ships. The Spanish monarchs knew that Portuguese mariners had reached the southern tip of Africa and sailed the Indian Ocean. They understood that the Portuguese would soon reach Asia and, in this competitive race to reach the Far East, the Spanish rulers decided to act.

[4] Columbus held ​erroneous views​ that shaped his thinking about what he would encounter as he sailed west. He believed the earth to be much smaller than its actual size and, since he did not know of the existence of the Americas, he fully expected to land in Asia. On October 12, 1492, however, he made landfall on an island in the Bahamas, south of the present-day state of Florida. He then sailed to an island he named Hispaniola (present-day Dominican Republic and Haiti). Believing he had landed in the East Indies, Columbus called the native Taínos people he found there “Indios,” ​giving rise to the term “Indian” for any native people of the New World​. Upon Columbus’s return to Spain, the Spanish crown bestowed on him the title of Admiral of the Ocean Sea and named him governor of the lands he had discovered. Up until the end of his life, Columbus held to his claim that the lands he had traveled to were part of the Asian continent, even though there was a mounting amount of evidence that contradicted his belief.

[5] Many other Europeans followed in Columbus’s footsteps, drawn by dreams of winning wealth by sailing west. Another Italian, Amerigo Vespucci, sailing for the Portuguese crown, explored the South American coastline between 1499 and 1502. Unlike Columbus, he realized that the Americas were not part of Asia but lands unknown to Europeans. Vespucci’s widely published accounts of his voyages fueled speculation and intense interest in the New World among Europeans. Among those who read Vespucci’s reports was the German mapmaker Martin Waldseemuller. Using the explorer’s first name as a label for the new landmass, Waldseemuller attached “America” to his map of the New World in 1507, and the name stuck.

Questions

Q1. The phrase ​flocked to​ in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to

  1. Moved to
  2. Searched for
  3. Managed to
  4. Desired to

Q2. Which of the following is true?

  1. Spain was looking to defeat its rival Portugal during the 1500s
  2. Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile united Spain through marriage
  3. In 1492, the Spanish territory had been defeated by Muslim conquest
  4. Spain became a major European power once they took over Portugal

Q3. Which of the following best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in paragraph 3? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

  1. Columbus thought he could sail to India to increase European trade and spread Christianity
  2. After landing in India Columbus planned on exploring India using other explorers’ charts
  3. Columbus had calculated a route to India based on other mariners’ calculations
  4. Columbus felt his expedition would open new trade routes

Q.4 According to paragraph 3, why did the Spanish monarchs decide to fund Christopher Columbus’ expedition?

  1. They were certain that the calculations for his expedition were correct
  2. So they could be credited with discovering India and sailing the Indian Ocean
  3. They wanted to reach India and the Far East before Portugal
  4. They realized the trade routes they could open up

Q.5 The phrase ​erroneous views​ in paragraph 4 is closest in meaning to

  1. Unclear visions
  2. False conceptions
  3. Exciting possibilities
  4. Proven ideas

Q.6 Why does the author say, “​giving rise to the term ‘Indian’ for any native people of the New World​”?

  1. To explain how and why people from the Americas came to be called Indians
  2. Because Columbus called the native Taínos people Indios, which means Indian
  3. To show that Columbus had thought he found India
  4. To explain why he was given the title of Admiral of the Ocean Sea when he went back to Spain

Q.7 What can be inferred about Columbus based on the information from the paragraph?

  1. He was an amateur sailor who needed more experience
  2. He likely betrayed the monarchs of Spain because he was bribed by Portugal
  3. He ignored or denied the evidence suggesting he did not make it to Asia
  4. He lied about his discoveries because he sought glory and fame

Q.8 According to the paragraph, which of the following is true?

  1. Few tried to accomplish what Christopher Columbus had done
  2. Another Spanish explorer, Amerigo Vespucci, sailed the South American coastline
  3. Vespucci made the same mistake as Columbus and believed the Americas was Asia
  4. The Americas landmass was named after Amerigo Vespucci

Q.9 Look at the four squares (​A​, ​B​, ​C​, ​D​) that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.

Though it was not Asia, he still recognized the opportunities and wanted to share what he had learned about this new land.

Where would the sentence best fit?

Many other Europeans followed in Columbus’s footsteps, drawn by dreams of winning wealth by sailing west. ​A​ Another Italian, Amerigo Vespucci, sailing for the Portuguese crown, explored the South American coastline between 1499 and 1502. ​B​ Unlike Columbus, he realized that the Americas were not part of Asia but lands unknown to Europeans. ​C​ Vespucci’s widely published accounts of his voyages fueled speculation and intense interest in the New World among Europeans. ​D

Q. 10 DIRECTIONS: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below.

Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage.

Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage.
​This question is worth 2 points​.

Though unbeknownst to him, Christopher Columbus discovered the Americas after being funded by the Spanish monarchs to sail to India, spread Christianity, and increase trade.

  1. Christopher Columbus was commissioned by Spain, but was actually of Italian origin
  2. Neighboring Portugal had already sailed the Indian Ocean but had not reached India
  3. Spain was under Islamic rule for hundreds of years until the monarchs Isabella and Ferdinand
  4. defeated the Muslims in Granada
  5. After initially being turned down, Columbus was supported by the Spanish to sail to India
  6. Columbus made landfall first in the Caribbean, but he believed he had reached India
  7. After Columbus, Europeans flocked to the Americas in search of opportunity

Passage 3

The Composition of Meteors

[1] Meteors are tiny solid particles that enter Earth’s atmosphere from interplanetary space. Since the particles move at speeds of many kilometers per second, friction with the air vaporizes them at altitudes between 80 and 130 kilometers. The resulting flashes of light fade out within a few seconds. These “shooting stars” got their name because at night their ​luminous​ vapors look like stars moving rapidly across the sky. Some meteorites do end up landing on Earth’s surface. It was not until the time when meteorites were measured and their compositions analyzed in detail that scientists appreciated their true significance. The meteorites include the oldest and most primitive materials available for direct study in the laboratory.

[2] The average age for the most primitive meteorites, calculated using the most accurate values now available for radioactive half-lives, is 4.5 billion years. This value is taken to represent the age of the solar system—the time since the first solids condensed and began to form into larger bodies.

[3] Meteorites are often classified between primitive and differentiated meteorites. The differentiated meteorites are fragments of larger parent bodies that were molten before they broke up, allowing the denser materials (such as metals) to sink to their centers. Like many rocks on Earth, they have been subject to a degree of chemical reshuffling, with the different materials sorted according to density. Differentiated meteorites include the irons, which come from the metal cores of their parent bodies; stony-irons, which probably originate in regions between a metal core and a stony mantle; and some stones that are composed of mantle or crust material from their differentiated parent bodies.

[4] For information on the earliest history of the solar system, we turn to the primitive meteorites—those made of materials that have not been ​subject to​ great heat or pressure since their formation. We can look at the spectrum of sunlight reflected from asteroids and compare their compositions with those of primitive meteorites. Such analysis indicates that their parent bodies are almost certainly asteroids. Since asteroids are believed to be fragments left over from the formation process of the solar system, it makes sense that they should be the parent bodies of the primitive meteorites.

[5] The great majority of the meteorites that reach Earth are primitive stones. Many of them are composed of light-colored gray silicates with some metallic grains mixed in. Among the most useful of these meteorites have been the Allende meteorite that fell in Mexico, the Murchison meteorite that fell in Australia, and the Tagish Lake meteorite that landed in a winter snowdrift on Tagish Lake, Canada, in 2000.

[6] The Murchison meteorite is known for the variety of organic chemicals it has yielded. Most of the carbon compounds in carbonaceous meteorites are complex, tar-like substances that defy exact analysis. Murchison also contains 16 amino acids (the building blocks of proteins), 11 of which are rare on Earth. The most remarkable thing about these organic molecules is that they include equal numbers with right-handed and left-handed molecular symmetry. Amino acids can have either kind of symmetry, but all life on Earth has evolved using only the left-handed versions to make proteins. The presence of both kinds of amino acids clearly demonstrates that the ones in the meteorites had an extraterrestrial origin.

[7] These naturally occurring amino acids and other complex organic molecules in Murchison—formed without the benefit of the sheltering environment of planet Earth—show that a great deal of interesting chemistry must have taken place when the solar system was forming. If so, then perhaps some of the molecular building blocks of life on Earth were first delivered by primitive meteorites and comets. This is an interesting idea because our planet was probably much too hot for any organic materials to survive its earliest history. But after Earth’s surface cooled, the asteroid and comet fragments that pelted it could have refreshed its supply of organic materials.

Questions

Q1. The word ​luminous​ in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to

  1. Beautiful
  2. Sweeping
  3. Glowing
  4. Dark

Q2. According to paragraph 1, which of the following is true?

  1. Most meteorites fall to Earth’s surface after they are vaporized
  2. Large particles that come together from interplanetary space form what is called a meteor
  3. Meteors are vaporized due to friction at heights of about 100 kilometers high
  4. Flashes of light seen in the sky at night are falling stars, which we refer to as shooting stars

Q3. What can be inferred from the information in paragraph two?

  1. Most meteorites are primitive meteorites
  2. The solar system is roughly 4.5 billion years old
  3. Astronomers prefer to study primitive meteorites since they are older
  4. Scientists have utilized new technology to assess the age of primitive meteorites

Q.4 All of the following are true EXCEPT

  1. Differentiated meteorites come from larger objects which were made of molten originally
  2. There are only two classes of meteorite: primitive and differentiated
  3. Meteorites composed of molten metals tend to have heavier materials in its center
  4. Among the differentiated meteorites are the irons and stony-irons

Q.5 According to paragraph 4, how can we learn about the solar system’s earliest history?

  1. By looking at the composition of differentiated meteorites
  2. From looking at images of primitive meteorites when they are attached to parent asteroids
  3. By studying asteroids and the parent bodies of both differentiated and primitive meteorites
  4. By comparing the makeup of primitive meteorites to that of asteroids seen through the reflection of sunlight

Q.6 Why does the author say that the Allende, the Murchison, and the Tagish Lake meteorites were “​among the most useful​”?

  1. To explain that these meteorites provide scientists with the most information
  2. To suggest that these meteorites were the most intact of all that have fallen to Earth
  3. To point out the countries that recovered the most information
  4. To show that there have not been many useful fallen meteorites since 2000

Q.7 According to paragraph 6, what is so notable about the Murchison meteorite?

  1. It was made entirely of carbon compounds that could not be analyzed
  2. It had within it sixteen amino acids which are rare to find on Earth
  3. It was of extraterrestrial origin and contained an unmatched symmetry
  4. It contained eleven rare amino acids that included a unique molecular symmetry

Q.8 Which of the following best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in paragraph 7? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

  1. The amino acids and organic molecules found in the Murchison meteorite occur naturally
  2. The amino acids and organic molecules in the Murchison meteorite tell us a lot about the chemistry of the formation of the solar system
  3. The Murchison meteorite was formed in space so the chemical processes was different
  4. The amino acids and organic molecules contained within the Murchison meteorite would be different had they been formed on Earth

Q.9 . Look at the four squares (​A​, ​B​, ​C​, ​D​) that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.

Some have been more helpful than others in providing information about the solar system.

Where would the sentence best fit?

A​ The great majority of the meteorites that reach Earth are primitive stones. ​B​ Many of them are composed of light-colored gray silicates with some metallic grains mixed in. ​C​ Among the most useful of these meteorites have been the Allende meteorite that fell in Mexico, the Murchison meteorite that fell in Australia, and the Tagish Lake meteorite that landed in a winter snowdrift on Tagish Lake, Canada, in 2000. ​D

Q. 10 DIRECTIONS: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below.

Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage.

Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage.
​This question is worth 2 points​.

Scientists have found that meteors and their chemical composition reveal a great deal regarding our solar system.

  1. Meteorites that have fallen to Earth have helped us gain a better understanding of the universe
  2. Primitive meteorites and their chemical makeup have provided an approximate age of the solar system at 4.5 billion years
  3. Meteorites that are vaporized by friction are referred to as “shooting stars”
  4. The two most common classes of meteorites are differentiated and primitive meteorites
  5. Scientists learned a lot about the chemistry of the formation of the solar system by studying the
  6. composition of fallen meteors
  7. The majority of meteorites that have landed on Earth are classified as differentiated meteorites

リスニング

TOEFL iBTリスニングです。会話形式2題、レクチャー3題の28問をおよそ41分で解答して頂きます。

紙に問題番号28までを記入してください

会話形式1

TOEFLリスニング実践問題:会話形式

Q.1 What is the conversation mainly about?

  1. A lesson Matthew prepared for his students
  2. A class Matthew has been observing
  3. A term paper that Matthew has written
  4. A problem in Matthew’s classroom

Q.2 What is Matthew’s opinion about observing Mr.Grabell’s third-grade class?

  1. It will help him become a more effective teacher
  2. It could help improve his study habits
  3. It has improved his public speaking skills
  4. It may be the most difficult assignment he has had

Q.3 Why does Matthew mention Greek and Roman mythology?

  1. To identify a topic frequently discussed in third grade
  2. To get the professor’s opinion about a lesson he taught
  3. To make a suggestion to improve the class he is taking
  4. To illustrate a technique used to teach a third-grade class

Q4. What important skills did Mr.Grabell introduce to his third-grade class? Choose 3 answers.

  1. Reviewing other student’s reports
  2. Using books in the library
  3. Interviewing their classmates
  4. Speaking in public
  5. Writing reports

Q.5 What will Matthew probably do in next Wednesday’s class?

  1. Had in his assignment early
  2. Try to start a study group
  3. Make a presentation to the class
  4. Choose a topic for his paper

会話形式2

Librarian

TOEFL Listening Practice Conversation01

Questions 1 – 5

Q.1 Why does the student go to see the librarian?

  1. To sign up for a seminar on using electronic sources for research
  2. To report that a journal is missing from the reference area
  3. To find out the procedure for checking out journal articles
  4. To ask about how to look for resources for a class paper

Q2. What does the librarian say about the availability of journals and articles in the library?

  1. They are not easy to find if a professor put them on reserve
  2. Most of them are accessible in an electronic format
  3. Most of them can be checked out for three weeks
  4. Printed versions from the past three years are located in the reference section

Q3. What does the librarian suggest the student should do to save time?

  1. Choose an easier research topic
  2. Concentrate on five journals
  3. Read the summaries of the articles first
  4. Install a new program on her home computer

Q.4 What can be inferred about why the woman decides to use the computer in the library?

  1. She thinks she might need additional help from the man
  2. She does not have a computer at home
  3. She has to hand in her assignment by the end of the day
  4. She will be meeting a friend in the library later on

Q.5 Why does the woman say this?

  1. She had forgotten about the information
  2. She is surprised she was not aware of the information
  3. She is annoyed that the information was published only recently
  4. She is concerned that the librarian gave her incorrect information

レクチャー1

Music

TOEFL Listening Question レクチャー形式

レクチャー形式の問題文は自分で読んでみてください

Q.1 What is playing by ear?

  1. Listening to music through earphones
  2. Playing an instrument that is held up to the ear
  3. Paying attention to what the teacher says
  4. Leaning to play music without reading notation

Q.2 Listen again to part of the talk. Then answer the question.

TOEFL Listening Question レクチャー形式 Q30

Why does the professor ask this:

  1. To suggest that all children should study music
  2. To introduce the main point he wants to make
  3. To find out if everyone in the class can read music
  4. To review material for an examination

Q.3 According to the professor, when should children learn to read musical notation? Choose two answers.

  1. When they first learn how to play an instrument
  2. When a group of children plays music together
  3. When the music is too complex to learn by ear
  4. When they are ready to play in front of an audience

Q.4 According to the professor, why should a music teacher paly the score for a child the first time?

  1. To demonstrate how the printed notes translate into music
  2. To suggest that the score can be played in different styles
  3. To allow the child to memorize the score by listening
  4. To show the child that the teacher is an excellent player

Q. 5 According to the professor, what is the natural order for children to learn music? Rank each sentence according to the natural order.

  1. Learn how to read standard notation
  2. Learn how to play the instrument by ear
  3. Learn how to play by chord symbols

Q.6 What does the professor imply about the three methods of playing music?

  1. Each method is appropriate for some students
  2. There is no reason to learn all three methods
  3. The best method is playing by standard notation
  4. Students should use the teacher’s favorite method.

レクチャー2

Notothenioids

Q1. What is the lecture mainly about?

  1. How notothenioids became the dominant type of fish in the Southern Ocean.
  2. How various proteins function in notothenioids.
  3. An example that contradicts theory of adaptive radiation.
  4. Changes in Ocean habitats caused by continental drift.

Q2. Why did the antifreeze protein originally give no special advantage to the earliest notothenioids?

  1. Many of the types of fish have the same protein.
  2. The notothenioids were not living in sub-freezing temperatures.
  3. The effect of the antifreeze protein was neutralized by other pertains.
  4. Antifreeze protein function only in the smallest notothenioids.

Q3. What characteristic of notothenioids helps them survive in subfreezing temperatures?

  1. They maintain an usually high body temperature.
  2. A special tissue in the eyes enables them to see through ice.
  3. Special proteins make the blood circulate too fast to freeze.
  4. Ice crystals in their bodies are prevented from growing large enough to harm them.

Q4. Why does the professor mention that coral reefs support more than 4,000 species of fish?

  1. To find out what students know about tropical fish.
  2. The contrast two types of ocean environments.
  3. To imply that there may be spaces in the Southern Ocean that have not been discovered yet.
  4. To imply that there may be fossil evidence of coral reefs in the Southern Ocean.

Q5. According to the professor, which factor led to the rapid distribution of notothenioids throughout the Southern Ocean?

  1. A genetic mutation occur in the DNA of the earliest notothenioids.
  2. There was an increase in competition for food in temperate waters.
  3. Antarctica broke off and drifted away from South American continent.
  4. The waters around Antarctica temporarily warmed up.

Q6. According to the professor, what happened to notothenioids that migrated to different areas of the Southern Ocean?

  1. They evolved into a wide variety of notothenioids species.
  2. They developed the ability to tolerate a wide range of temperatures.
  3. Some of them became extinct because of new predators.
  4. Some of them developed additional antifreeze proteins.

レクチャー3

Q1. The professor introduces the lecture about the Antikythera Mechanism by explaining a eureka moment’s impact on the scientific community. What purpose does this provide?

  1. The professor gets to talk about the theory of relativity.
  2. The professor feels the Antikythera Mechanism is a eureka moment.
  3. People should understand different mechanisms made out of bronze.
  4. The professor wants to show that there is no such thing as a small idea or a small find.

Q2. What was the purpose of the original Antikythera Mechanism?

  1. A device to track the stars in the solar system
  2. A device to track the constellations in the solar system
  3. A device to track the phases of the moon
  4. A device to show the theory of relativity

Q3. Looking at the clues, scientists discovered that the Antikythera Mechanism was invented between what years?

  1. 150 and 100 BCE
  2. 1000 years ago
  3. 100 and 150 AD
  4. 1500 and 1000 BCE

Q4. What is implied when the professor says that bronze easily corrodes underwater?

  1. It was easy for scientists to determine how the gears were laid out in the mechanism.
  2. It was difficult for scientists to determine how the gears were laid out in the mechanism.
  3. There might be some corroded bronze coins from the shipwreck in the Mediterranean Sea.
  4. The mechanism would be impossible to reconstruct.

Q5. What is true about the Antikythera Mechanism find? Select 3 correct answers.

  1. It was made of entirely bronze.
  2. It spend nearly 2,000 years at the bottom of the sea.
  3. Its symbols were rubbed down to almost nothing.
  4. The gears remained rust-free.

Q6. The professor explains what he thinks is the most amazing trait of the Antikythera Mechanism. What does he say to his students?

  1. Gamma-rays could help map out the gears.
  2. The mechanism was very precise and it accounted for an irregularity in the moon’s orbit.
  3. The mechanism was used within a 5-year span.
  4. It was the first mechanism to track stars.

スピーキング

TOEFL iBTのスピーキングの実践問題です。携帯の録音機能を使ってください。

タスク1

問を読んだら15秒考えて、45秒間話す流れになります

問: Do you agree or disagree that students should bring their cellphones to school? Use details and examples to support your explanation.

上記の問を読み終えたら15秒間考えて下さい。

You have 45 seconds to record your answer.

タスク2

50秒でパッセージを読んで、パッセージに関するリスニングをして、30秒の準備時間後に60秒間話すという流れです。

それでは実際に、TOEFL Integratedスピーキングタスク2の流れを実践で確認してみましょう。

READ A CAMPUS ANNOUNCEMENT (50秒)
Responding to the university’s green initiative campaign, the library is going to cut down the electricity consumption by implementing the following procedures. First, the lighting equipment will be upgraded to energy-efficient lighting. The work to replace the lighting equipment will start on September 12, 2017. Second, starting September 15, the current temperature is going to be set 5 degrees lower after 4 pm on weekend and weekdays.

問: The woman expresses her opinion about the announcement. State her opinion and explain the reasons that she gives for holding that opinion.

30秒間で準備して60秒間話してください。

タスク3

50秒でパッセージを読んで、パッセージに関するレクチャーを聴いて、30秒の準備時間後に60秒間話すという流れです。

READ A SHORT PASSAGE (50秒)
A self-fulfilling prophecy occurs when a person acts based on a false pre-supposition, forcing their thoughts to become the reality. In this instance a person will act upon what they believe to be true, rather than the reality of a situation. An athlete who believes they will lose, may in fact lose simply because they have already made up their mind about their reality.

問: Using the main points and examples from the lecture, describe self-fufilling prophecy.

30秒間で準備して60秒間話してください。

タスク4

いきなりレクチャーを聴いて、20秒で準備しいて60秒話します。

問: Using the main point and examples from the lecture, describe two adaptations that the Arctic butterfly has developed for cold climates.

問を読み終えたら20秒で準備して60秒間話して下さい。

ライティング

最後はTOEFL iBTのライティングです。パソコンでドキュメントを開いて下さい。

タスク1

3分で読んで、すぐにそれに関するレクチャーを聴いて、要約する問題です。20分で250-300字以内で解答します。

READ A SHORT PASSAGE 3分

Sea otters are a small mammal that lives in the waters along North America’s west coast from California to Alaska. A few years ago some of the sea otter populations off of the Alaskan coast started to decline rapidly and raised several concerns because of their important role in the coastal ecosystem. Experts began investigating and came up with two possible explanations. One explanation was environmental pollution and the second was attacks by predators.

At first it seemed as if the pollution was the most likely cause for the population decline. One reason pollution was more likely was because of the known pollution sources along the Alaskan coast such as oil rigs. Also water samples taken in the area showed increased levels of chemicals that could decrease the otters’ immune systems and indirectly result in their deaths.

Another thing that pointed to pollution as the culprit was the decline of other sea mammals such as seals in the same areas. This indicated that whatever was affecting the otters was also affecting the other sea mammals. Environmental pollution usually affects an entire ecosystem instead of just one species. Only predators that occurred in a large area, such as orcas (a large predatory whale), could cause the same effect, but they usually hunt larger prey.

Finally, scientists believed the pollution hypothesis would also explain the uneven pattern of otter decline. In some Alaskan locations the otter population declined greatly while other populations remained stable. Some experts suggested this could be explained by ocean currents, or other environmental factor, might have created uneven concentrations of pollutants along the coast.

問: Summarize the point made in the lecture and explain how the speaker cast doubt on specific points made in the reading passage.

20分で250-300字以内で要約してください。

タスク2

問に対して30分以内でできれば350字以上で解答します。

問: Decisions can be made quickly, or they can be made after careful thought. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? The decisions that people make quickly are always wrong. Use reasons and specific examples to support your opinion.

Answers

リーディング解答

パッセージ1の解答

  • Q1. A
  • Q2. A
  • Q3. C
  • Q4. A
  • Q5. B
  • Q6. A
  • Q7. B
  • Q8. C
  • Q9. C
  • Q10. E / C / A

パッセージ2の解答

  • Q1. A
  • Q2. B
  • Q3. A
  • Q4. C
  • Q5. B
  • Q6. A
  • Q7. C
  • Q8. D
  • Q9. D
  • Q10. D / E / F

パッセージ3の解答

  • Q1. C
  • Q2. C
  • Q3. D
  • Q4. B
  • Q5. D
  • Q6. A
  • Q7. D
  • Q8. B
  • Q9. C
  • Q10. A / B / E

リスニング解答

会話形式1の解答

  • Q1. B
  • Q2. A
  • Q3. D
  • Q4. B / D / E
  • Q5. C

会話形式2の解答

  • Q1. D
  • Q2. B
  • Q3. C
  • Q4. A
  • Q5. B

レクチャー形式1の解答

  • Q1. D
  • Q2. B
  • Q3. B / C
  • Q4. A
  • Q5. (1)B (2)C (3)A
  • Q6. A

レクチャー形式2の解答

  • Q1. A
  • Q2. B
  • Q3. D
  • Q4. B
  • Q5. C
  • Q6. A

レクチャー形式3の解答

  • Q1. B
  • Q2. C
  • Q3. A
  • Q4. B
  • Q5. A /B / C
  • Q6. B

スピーキング解答

タスク1

I agree with students bringing their cellphones to school. First of all, what if there was an emergency and they needed to call 911 or just call someone for help. Their cellphone could be a lifesaver. In addition, it can be a backup for certain technology. For example, I was about to take a math test when I realized I forgot my calculator at home, well fortunately for me my cellphone had a calculator application downloaded into it and I was able take the test.

タスク2

The girl thinks cutting down on the electricity consumption in the library is going to inconvenience her and the other students. In order to save energy, the school is upgrading the library with energy-efficient lights and lowering the temperature by five degrees. She thinks that the reason students study in the library is because they want a well-lit room with a comfortable temperature, so upgrading the lights and lowering the temperature might discourage students from studying there at all. Therefore, she thinks the school is actually going against its green initiative campaign by doing this, because these new changes will make students decide to study in their dorm rooms instead of traveling to study in the library, and if they do this, they will all end up consuming more energy instead of saving it which is, in fact, the whole purpose of this campaign.

タスク3

The professor describes self-fulfilling prophecies as a false statement affecting the people’s perception of a situation and therefore indirectly causing the statement to become true. The professor used two examples. The first example was, a woman destroying her marriage because she believed her marriage would fail. Her fears and confusion actually caused the failure in her marriage to happen. The second example was about a bank that was running well and had many clients. One day, a group of people came to the bank together and caused other clients to perceive the situation as the bank being in financial trouble. All the clients began withdrawing their money and inadvertently caused the false rumor to become true. The bank could not handle all the withdrawals and went bankrupt. Therefore, the false perception of the banks situation, caused the perception to become true.

タスク4

In this lecture, the professor talks about two ways that the Arctic butterfly has adapted to its environment. The first adaptation he mentions is basking. When Arctic butterflies bask, they take in the sun’s warmth by opening their wings to direct sunlight. The heat from the sun is then circulated through their blood. Basking is important for the Arctic butterfly because its body temperature must at least 10 degrees celsius to fly. The other adaptation discussed is the Arctic butterfly’s ability to produce something called a cryoprotectant. Cryoprotectants act as a shield against the freezing of organic cells and tissues in very cold environments, such as the Arctic, and other Arctic animals also have this adaptation. So, basking and production of cryoprotectants are the two adaptations discussed in this lecture.

ライティング解答

タスク1 Integrated Writing

The reading and the lecture are both about the decline in sea otter populations. While the reading’s author states that pollution is a cause of their populations declining, the lecturer suggests that the greatest factor is predation. The lecturer casts doubts on the main points made in the reading by providing three reasons.

First of all, according to the reading, higher levels of pollutants in water samples support the pollution theory. However, the lecturer disputes this by explaining that if sea otters had been killed by pollutants in water, their remains would appear on shores, which indicates predators ate the sea otters.

Secondly, the reading states that populations of other small sea animals have been hurt by pollution. Nevertheless, the lecturer refutes this argument. He argues that because the whale population decreased, nearby orcas had to eat otters instead.

Finally, the reading claims that pollutant concentration can explain the uneven pattern of diminishing sea otter populations. On the other hand, the lecturer believes that this uneven population decline corresponds with the prevalence of orcas in different areas. He thinks that the otter population declines more in places with orcas, and less in those inaccessible to orcas.

In conclusion, although the reading and the lecture both concern hypotheses about diminishing sea otter populations, the three main points made in the reading are effectively challenged by the lecturer.

タスク2 – Independent Writing

There is a saying that goes ‘do not make haste decisions’. I am a firm believer that it is true. It is a good thing to be decisive, but sometimes your ideas may backfire. People should never make quick decisions without fully considering the factors that are influencing their decisions and the consequences of different decisions.

To begin with, when people make hasty decisions, they rarely care anything about the situation. Situation is a very important factor in making a right decision. Different decisions lead to different results, so it is very important to make a decision carefully. People who make quick decisions do not have time to look around and carefully analyze the consequences resulted by different decisions.

Secondly, there is a popular belief that people should decide quickly in order to catch opportunities. Unfortunately, that notion is completely wrong. If you made a quick decision without thinking carefully, how could you be able to catch the opportunities? “Chance favors the prepared mind,” as a famous saying goes. Only when you have fully prepared, can you really grab a good opportunity when time come. Otherwise the chance that you take hastily may result in a failure.

Thirdly, even if you can quickly analyze the situation based on the facts that are provided to you at the time that you make a decision, since you do not have enough time to verify the validity of those information, the information could be wrong, which could leads to wrong decisions. Even the president of the United States can make this kind of mistake. Mr. Bush made a decision to start the War on Iraq based on the false information that his subordinates provided to him, which claims that Iraq has dangerous biochemical weapons. Maybe someday history will prove that the decision to start the War was wrong.

To sum up, it is true that plans made on impulse are fun and sometimes surprisingly they turn out to be good decisiona. Coming up with ideas at the spur-of-the-moment are fun in some occasions, like going for a holiday and joining the bandwagon rather than pondering for hours and hours whether to act upon the idea or not. However, if you have to make a serious decision like say for your life, then you need to make the decision purely on careful thought and taking into considerations people’s opinions.

スコアの出し方

TOEFLを作成しているETSは採点基準は公表していますが、正答数とスコアの関係というのは明らかにしていません。

実際のスコアは各テストの難易度によって微調整されるからのようです。

一方で毎年何百人と生徒を見てきたので、おおよそのスコアは出すことが可能です。以下を参考に自己採点してください。

リーディング

30問ですのでシンプルに1問1点で計算して下さい。全問正解は30点、1問間違いは29点といった具合です。

リスニング

28問ですので、基本的に1問1点で、レクチャー1と3の問5の複数解答のみ2点計算です。3択のうち2つあっていたら1点、3つとも正解したら2点です。

スピーキング

30点 – 4問全て流暢に時間いっぱい話せた人
28点 – 4問全て流暢に答えられているが、1問においてほんの少しのためらいがある
26点 – 4問全て答えられているがその内2問で少しのためらいがある
24点 – 3問は流暢に答えられたが1問で「あっ..」と大きくこけた
22点 – 2問は流暢に答えられたが1問で「あっ..」大きくうこけて、もう1問もぎこちない
20点 – 2問はきちんと答えられたが残り2問で「あっ..」と大きくこけた
17点 – 1問はきちんと答えられたが、残り3問ともぎこちない、もしくは大きくこけた
15点 – 4問ともぎこちないながらもなんとか答えている状態
13点 – 2問はぎこちなく答えて、残り2問は大きくこけた
10点 – 1問はなんとか答えて、3問は大きくこけた

通常日本で育った人はスピーキングで24を超える事は至難ですのですが、一方で内容は「ん?」というものでも時間いっぱい話せれば18点にはなります。

ライティング

30点 – IntegratedはRL双方3つのポイントが書かれていて、Independentは自然な文体で書かれていてすいすい読める
28点- IntegratedはRL双方3つのポイントが書かれていて、Independentも概ね自然だが、どこかで読み手が一瞬つまる。
25点 –
21点 – 片方がきちんとかけていて(4点)、もう片方が構成がきちんとしていない (3点)
( 200字後半はかけていない人は21点以上はでません)
20点 – 両方とも構成に欠点があるが、分量は300字かけている
18点 – 片方が200字以下と短過ぎたり、読むに耐えない(2点)、もう片方が構成はきちんとしていないが分量はかけている (3点)
14点以下 – 200字かけていない (2点)

ざっくりしたスコアの考え方としては、構成に欠点があっても、300字程度かけていたら3点はとれる可能性が高いです。つまり20点。

構成に欠点というのは、主張が一貫性をかいているものです。テンプレ系の解答や、アイデアに対する理由や例が「え?」と思うようなものはだいたい3点です。

スピーキング同様に25点を超えるのが難しいですが、たくさん書ければ18点にはのると覚えておいてください。

最後に

おそらくほとんど人が自分のスコアにショックを受けたかと思います。

TOEFL iBTは英検1級を持っているような人でも初回は90-95点前後であるようなテストです。

初回が50点であっても大丈夫です、必ずスコアアップできますよ。所詮はテストですからね。

本番までに時間がない人は遠慮なく私に相談してくださいね。

英語の「今まで」と「これから」

最短でスコアを伸ばすなら…

SOLOのミッションは最短でIELTSのスコアを伸ばすことです。

独学で限界を感じたら、一度カウンセリングを受けてみてください。IELTS・TOEFLなど資格対策のプロフェッショナルたちが、あなたの課題を解決できるかもしれません。

LINEでも気軽に相談ができるので、何か困っていることがあればご連絡くださいね:

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