【文章完結問題】IELTSリーディングの練習

【文章完結問題】IELTSリーディングの練習

こんにちは、SOLO IELTS TOEFLのルークです。

IELTSリーディングの「文章完結問題」の練習をしていきましょう。

文章完成問題とは問の形式が違います

リーディングの文章完結問題

IELTSのリーディングは全3つのパッセージ計40問から成り立っています。

リーディングの問題形式は全部で14あり、文章完結問題はそのうちの1つです。

  1. True / False / Not Given問題
  2. パラグラフ選択問題
  3. 見出し選択問題
  4. タイトル選択問題
  5. カテゴリー問題
  6. 穴埋め問題
  7. 文章完成問題
  8. テーブル完成問題
  9. フローチャート完成問題
  10. ダイアグラム完成問題
  11. 文章完結問題
  12. 多肢選択問題
  13. リスト選択問題
  14. ショートアンサー

途中まで与えられている文章を選択肢の中から選んで完結させる問題です。文章完成問題と名前は似ていますが異なるタイプの形式です。

【文章完成問題】IELTSリーディング

問題の特徴

以下はIELTSリーディングの「文章完結問題」のサンプルです。

問の11-14の文章が途中で切れていて、上記のA-Eから続きを選ぶことで文章を完結させる問題だということがわかります。

IELTS側が試しているスキルは以下2点です。

  • 情報を正確に理解できているかの確認
  • 特定箇所の把握

アルファベットが答えとなる形式です

問題のテクニック

IELTSリーディングの「文章完結問題」で答えを特定するためのテクニックは以下になります。

  • 問の文章を見た後に答えの選択肢を見る
  • パラフレーズが来ると認識する
  • パラフレーズによって特定箇所を把握
  • 問の順番通りに答えも出現する
  • 答えの選択肢は問の数よりも多い

答えとなる箇所を把握するためには、きちんとパラフレーズされた語彙を見つけることがポイントになります

サンプル問題で練習

それではIELTSリーディングの「文章完結問題」のサンプル問題を解いて練習してみましょう。

Language diversity

One of the most influential ideas in the study of languages is that of universal grammar (UG). Put forward by Noam Chomsky in the 1960s, it is widely interpreted as meaning that all languages are basically the same, and that the human brain is born language-ready, with an in-built programme that is able to interpret the common rules underlying any mother tongue. For five decades this idea prevailed, and influenced work in linguistics, psychology and cognitive science. To understand language, it implied, you must sweep aside the huge diversity of languages, and find their common human core.

Since the theory of UG was proposed, linguists have identified many universal language rules. However, there are almost always exceptions. It was once believed, for example, that if a language had syllables[1] that begin with a vowel and end with a consonant (VC), it would also have syllables that begin with a consonant and end with a vowel (CV). This universal lasted until 1999, when linguists showed that Arrernte, spoken by Indigenous Australians from the area around Alice Springs in the Northern Territory, has VC syllables but no CV syllables.

Other non-universal universals describe the basic rules of putting words together. Take the rule that every language contains four basic word classes: nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs. Work in the past two decades has shown that several languages lack an open adverb class, which means that new adverbs cannot be readily formed, unlike in English where you can turn any adjective into an adverb, for example ‘soft’ into ‘softly’. Others, such as Lao, spoken in Laos, have no adjectives at all. More controversially, some linguists argue that a few languages, such as Straits Salish, spoken by indigenous people from north-western regions of North America, do not even have distinct nouns or verbs. Instead, they have a single class of words to include events, objects and qualities.

Even apparently indisputable universals have been found lacking. This includes recursion, or the ability to infinitely place one grammatical unit inside a similar unit, such as ‘Jack thinks that Mary thinks that … the bus will be on time’. It is widely considered to be the most essential characteristic of human language, one that sets it apart from the communications of all other animals. Yet Dan Everett at Illinois State University recently published controversial work showing that Amazonian Piraha does not have this quality.

But what if the very diversity of languages is the key to understanding human communication? Linguists Nicholas Evans of the Australian National University in Canberra, and Stephen Levinson of the Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics in Nijmegen, the Netherlands, believe that languages do not share a common set of rules. Instead, they say, their sheer variety is a defining feature of human communication – something not seen in other animals. While there is no doubt that human thinking influences the form that language takes, if Evans and Levinson are correct, language in turn shapes our brains. This suggests that humans are more diverse than we thought, with our brains having differences depending on the language environment in which we grew up. And that leads to a disturbing conclusion: every time a language becomes extinct, humanity loses an important piece of diversity.

If languages do not obey a single set of shared rules, then how are they created? ‘Instead of universals. you get standard engineering solutions that languages adopt again and again, and then you get outliers.’ says Evans. He and Levinson argue that this is because any given language is a complex system shaped by many factors, including culture, genetics and history. There- are no absolutely universal traits of language, they say, only tendencies. And it is a mix of strong and weak tendencies that characterises the ‘bio-cultural’ mix that we call language.

According to the two linguists, the strong tendencies explain why many languages display common patterns. A variety of factors tend to push language in a similar direction, such as the structure of the brain, the biology of speech, and the efficiencies of communication. Widely shared linguistic elements may also be ones that build on a particularly human kind of reasoning. For example, the fact that before we learn to speak we perceive the world as a place full of things causing actions (agents) and things having actions done to them (patients) explains why most languages deploy these grammatical categories.

Weak tendencies, in contrast, are explained by the idiosyncrasies of different languages. Evans and Levinson argue that many aspects of the particular natural history of a population may affect its language. For instance, Andy Butcher at Flinders University in Adelaide, South Australia, has observed that indigenous Australian children have by far the highest incidence of chronic middle-ear infection of any population on the planet, and that most indigenous Australian languages lack many sounds that are common in other languages, but which are hard to hear with a middle-ear infection. Whether this condition has shaped the sound systems of these languages is unknown, says Evans, but it is important to consider the idea.

Levinson and Evans are not the first to question the theory of universal grammar, but no one has summarised these ideas quite as persuasively, and given them as much reach. As a result, their arguments have generated widespread enthusiasm, particularly among those linguists who are tired of trying to squeeze their findings into the straitjacket of ‘absolute universals’. To some, it is the final nail in UG’s coffin. Michael Tomasello, co-director of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, has been a long-standing critic of the idea that all languages conform to a set of rules. ‘Universal grammar is dead,’ he says.

[1] a unit of sound

Complete each sentence with the correct ending, A-E, below.
Write the correct letter, A-E.

38. The Arrernte language breaks a ‘rule’ concerning ____
39. The Lao language has been identified as lacking ____
40. It has now been suggested that Amazonia Piraha does not have ____

  • A. words of a certain grammatical type.
  • B. a sequence of sounds predicted by UG.
  • C. words which can have more than one meaning.
  • D. the language feature regarded as the most basic.
  • E. sentences beyond a specified length.

解答

以下が回答になります。

  • 38: B
  • 39: A
  • 40: D

解答説明

パッセージのどこに該当箇所があったか確認してみましょう。

Q38. The Arrernte language breaks a ‘rule’ concerning

Arrernte, spoken by Indigenous Australians from the area around Alice Springs in the Northern Territory, has VC syllables but no CV syllables

Arrenteというキーワードを手がかりにパラグラフ2の特定が鍵でした

Q39. The Lao language has been identified as lacking

such as Lao, spoken in Laos, have no adjectives at all

lacking = have noという比較的 わかりやすいパラフレーズでしたね

Q40. It has now been suggested that Amazonia Piraha does not have

Even apparently indisputable universals have been found lacking. This includes recursion … Amazonian Piraha does not have this quality.

まとめ

IELTSリーディング「文章完結問題」の特徴は理解できましたか。

次の記事: 【多肢選択問題】IELTSリーディングの練習

問の文章を見た後に答えとなる選択肢を見ます。そしてパッセージ内のパラフレーズに備えながら精読していきます。

英語の「今まで」と「これから」

最短で伸ばすならSolo

SoloはIELTSのスコアを最短で伸ばします。

自分だけで学習できる自信がない人は是非一度カウンセリングに来てみてね。

弊社のIELTSのプロ講師たちが待ってるよ。

Solo IELTS TOEFLサポートページ

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