【ダイアグラム完成問題】IELTSリーディングの練習

【ダイアグラム完成問題】IELTSリーディングの練習

こんにちは、SOLO IELTS TOEFLのルークです。

IELTSリーディングの「ダイアグラム完成問題」の練習をしていきましょう。

同一パラグラフに答えが詰まっていることが多いです

リーディングのダイアグラム完成

IELTSのリーディングは全3つのパッセージ計40問から成り立っています。

リーディングの問題形式は全部で14あり、ダイアグラム完成問題はそのうちの1つです。

  1. True / False / Not Given問題
  2. パラグラフ選択問題
  3. 見出し選択問題
  4. タイトル選択問題
  5. カテゴリー問題
  6. 穴埋め問題
  7. 文章完成問題
  8. テーブル完成問題
  9. フローチャート完成問題
  10. ダイアグラム完成問題
  11. 文章完結問題
  12. 多肢選択問題
  13. リスト選択問題
  14. ショートアンサー

ダイアグラム内で求められている単語をパッセージ内から探す形式ですね。問題数は3-4問と出題されたとしても少数です。

問題の特徴

以下はIELTSリーディングの「ダイアグラム完成問題」のサンプルです。

単語力が凄まじい人は知識で答えられますね…

IELTS側が試しているスキルは以下3点です。

  • ダイアグラムとパッセージの照査
  • 特定箇所の把握
  • 適切な語彙選択

一箇所に答えが詰まっているので、そこを特定できるかが鍵になります

問題のテクニック

IELTSリーディングの「ダイアグラム完成問題」で答えを特定するためのテクニックは以下になります。

  • 品詞の確認
  • 解答は特定の1つか2つのパラグラフに
  • 解答が詰まっているパラグラフの特定
  • 解答は問題番号とずれる可能性あり
  • 文字数に注意

スキャニングしてパッセージ内での解答箇所をいち早く見つけたら注意して精読して下さい

サンプル問題で練習

それではIELTSリーディングの「ダイアグラム完成問題」のサンプル問題を解いて練習してみましょう。

Elephant Communication

O’ Connell-Rodwell, a postdoctoral fellow at Stanford University, has travelled to Namibia’s first-ever wildlife reserve to explore the mystical and complicated realm of elephant communication. She, along with her colleagues, is part of a scientific revolution that started almost 20 years ago. This revolution has made a stunning revelation: elephants are capable of communicating with each other over long distances with low-frequency sounds, also known as infrasounds, which are too deep for humans to hear.

As might be expected, African elephants able to detect seismic sound may have something to do with their ears. The hammer bone in an elephant’s inner ear is proportionally huge for a mammal, but it is rather normal for animals that use vibrational signals. Thus, it may be a sign that suggests elephants can use seismic sounds to communicate.

Other aspects of elephant anatomy also support that ability. First, their massive bodies, which enable them to give out low-frequency sounds almost as powerful as the sound a jet makes during takeoff, serve as ideal frames for receiving ground vibrations and transmitting them to the inner ear. Second, the elephant’s toe bones are set on a fatty pad, which might be of help when focusing vibrations from the ground into the bone. Finally, the elephant has an enormous brain that sits in the cranial cavity behind the eyes in line with the auditory canal. The front of the skull is riddled with sinus cavities, which might function as resonating chambers for ground vibrations.

It remains unclear how the elephants detect such vibrations, but O’ Connell- Rodwell raises a point that the pachyderms are ‘listening’ with their trunks and feet instead of their ears. The elephant trunk may just be the most versatile appendage in nature. Its utilization encompasses drinking, bathing, smelling, feeding and scratching. Both trunk and feet contain two types of nerve endings that are sensitive to pressure – one detects infrasonic vibration, and another responds to vibrations higher in frequencies. As O’ Connell-Rodwell sees, this research has a boundless and unpredictable future. ‘Our work is really interfaced of geophysics, neurophysiology and ecology,’ she says. ‘We’re raising questions that have never even been considered before.’

It has been well-known to scientists that seismic communication is widely observed among small animals, such as spiders, scorpions, insects and quite a lot of vertebrate species like white-lipped frogs, blind mole rats, kangaroo rats and golden moles. Nevertheless, O’Connell-Rodwell first argued that a giant land animal is also sending and receiving seismic signals. ‘I used to lay a male planthopper on a stem and replay the calling sound of a female, and then the male one would exhibit the same kind of behaviour that happens in elephants —he would freeze, then press down on his legs, move forward a little, then stay still again. I find it so fascinating, and it got me thinking that perhaps auditory communication is not the only thing that is going on.’

Scientists have confirmed that an elephant’s capacity to communicate over long distance is essential for survival, especially in places like Etosha, where more than 2,400 savanna elephants range over a land bigger than New Jersey. It is already difficult for an elephant to find a mate in such a vast wild land, and the elephant reproductive biology only complicates it. Breeding herds also adopt low-frequency sounds to send alerts regarding predators. Even though grown-up elephants have no enemies else than human beings, baby elephants are vulnerable and are susceptible to lions and hyenas attack. At the sight of a predator, older ones in the herd will clump together to form protection before running away.

We now know that elephants can respond to warning calls in the air, but can they detect signals transmitted solely through the ground? To look into that matter, the research team designed an experiment in 2002, which used electronic devices that enabled them to give out signals through the ground at Mushara. ‘The outcomes of our 2002 study revealed that elephants could indeed sense warning signals through the ground,’ O’Connell-Rodwell observes.

Last year, an experiment was set up in the hope of solving that problem. It used three different recordings—the 1994 warning call from Mushara, an anti-predator call recorded by scientist Joyce Poole in Kenya and a made-up warble tone. ‘The data I’ve observed to this point implies that the elephants were responding the way I always expected. However, the fascinating finding is that the anti-predator call from Kenya, which is unfamiliar to them, caused them to gather around, tense up and rumble aggressively as well—but they didn’t always flee. I didn’t expect the results to be that clear-cut.’

Label the diagram below.
Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 28-31 on your answer sheet.

解答

以下が回答になります。

  • 28: hammer
  • 29: massive
  • 30: pad
  • 31: sinus cavities

何問正解できましたか?

解答説明

パッセージのどこに該当箇所があったか確認してみましょう。

Q28: ____ bones in the inner ears

The hammer bone in an elephants inner ear is proportionally huge for a mammal

Q29: ____ body

First, their massive bodies , which enable them to give out low-frequency sounds

キーワードがbodyであることと、解答が形容詞だろうと想像できると容易でした

Q30: Toe and fatty____

Second, the elephant’s toe bones are set on a fatty pad,

toeとfattyをパッセージ中で見つけられると解答できました

Q31: Big sized brain skull with many….

Final an enormous brain that sits in the cranial cavity behind the eyes in line with the auditory canal. The front of the skull is riddled with sinus cavities, which might function as resonating chambers for mound vibrations.

ちなみに皆さんはenormousは発音が綺麗にできますか?

まとめ

IELTSリーディング「ダイアグラム完成問題」の特徴は理解できましたか。

次の記事: 【文章完結問題】IELTSリーディングの練習

解答と解答の距離が近いので、スキャニングにより該当パラグラフをいち早く見つけられるかがポイントとなります。

英語の「今まで」と「これから」

最短で伸ばすならSolo

SoloはIELTSのスコアを最短で伸ばします。

自分だけで学習できる自信がない人は是非一度カウンセリングに来てみてね。

弊社のIELTSのプロ講師たちが待ってるよ。

Solo IELTS TOEFLサポートページ

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