- コツ1. 選択肢の意味の違いを確認する
- コツ2. 詳細を含む選択肢は消去する
- コツ3. パッセージの大きな目的に沿った選択肢を選ぶ
- コツ4. 最初と最後のパラグラフに再度目を通す
- コツ5. このタイプの問題に時間を費やさない
- Choose the correct letter, A, B, C, D or E. Write your answer in box 40 on your answer sheet.
- What is the best title for Reading Passage?
- A. Clues for adult language learning.
- B. Language acquisition in infants and young children.
- C. Measuring speaking ability amongst infants.
- D. Acquiring language: The key to future learning.
- E. Experiments in infant language acquisition
- It is no small intellectual task that a child learns a language. In order to begin to communicate, a young child must first gain an understanding of the internal structure of a system that, in reality, contains tens of thousands of units, all generated from a small set of basic building blocks. In the case of English, these basic building blocks’ are the alphabet and the units’ are words. Although initially, a child may be able to grasp and manipulate the basic letters of a language to form an infinite number of units’, he or she must progress to another higher form of comprehension – the understanding that only a subset of those combinations is correct – what are actual meaningful words. Somehow, a young child must become familiar with the structure of a particular language system such that he or she can use it to communicate with others.
- Given the complexity of the process of language acquisition, the question of how infants learn to speak in their native language so rapidly is an interesting one. Among linguists, the answer to this question has been researched and debated for decades. Some researchers think that the answer to the question – if indeed there is one – may unlock a secret to faster language acquisition amongst older people. Over the years, experiments where researchers have devised an artificial language that contained certain aspects of natural language structure have been tried. The artificial language was presented to the infants one ‘piece’ or ‘sample’ at a time. Once they became familiar with one piece of the language, another piece from the same artificial language was introduced. Once the infant appeared comfortable with this process, a piece of real or bona fide language was introduced. The researchers then measured such things as surprise and interest shown in the new language samples to determine whether or not the infant related to them as being completely new or as being more of what had been previously learned. The infant’s reactions to the new stimuli helped linguists to determine what mechanisms underpin the first stages of language acquisition. Experiments like this have uncovered some astonishing facts namely the rate at which an infant, even as young as 7 or 8 months, can take on the new’ information. Some infants demonstrated the ability to process the new information after as little as 3 minutes of exposure. Their young minds were able to structure the linguistic input into relevant and ultimately meaningful units of information.
- Much of a child’s future social and intellectual development hinges upon their ability to acquire language. For this reason, language acquisition is one of the key milestones in early childhood development. Many child development experts encourage parents to start talking to their infant from the day of their birth. Some researchers maintain that the best way for a child to learn is to simply hear language as those around them talk. Repetition of structures seems to be a logical and academically defensible method of child language acquisition. Quite a large body of research has shown that optimal language development occurs when the same stories are read over and over again to young children. In one experiment, a mother exposed her son to only one book for nearly two years. The results were that the child spoke much earlier than his other siblings and was able to recite 90% of the text on each page by the age of two. Other studies have revealed that a knowledge of nursery rhymes among three-year-olds has been a significant predictor of later reading skill.
- These examples of language learning, processing and producing, represent just a few of the many developments between birth and the eventual linguistic maturity that most children naturally attain. It is during this early period that children discover the raw materials in the sounds of their language, learn how they are assembled into longer strings, and then used in meaningful contexts. These processes unfold simultaneously, requiring children to organise the code of communication that surrounds them. Even though each layer is complex, young children readily solve the linguistic puzzles they encounter.
- Regardless of the methods employed, the acquisition of a language is not an automatic process but rather one that occurs as a result of a process of learning. If a child does not take on a new language, then isolation and withdrawal often accompany learning difficulties and poor academic performance.
- 40. B
- 1. Aはパラグラフ2の詳細を述べているにすぎない。
- 2. Cは話す能力にしか触れていおらず、パッセージは言語学習という大きな枠について。
- 3. Dは最後のパラグラフで述べられている内容ですが、最後のパラグラフ「のみ」で述べられているため不正解。
- 4. Eも実験について述べているのはパラグラフ2のみです。
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