IELTSリーディングで全体像を把握する方法【練習問題付き】

【IELTS対策】リーディングの全体像を把握する方法|練習問題つき

こんにちは、SOLO IELTS TOEFLのルークです。

このブログではIELTSリーディングで全体像を把握する方法を紹介します。

読み終えると1-2分でリーディング問題の概要を掴めるようになります。

IELTSリーディングの特徴

IELTSのリーディングで最も難しいのは「時間内」に「正確性」をもって読むことです。

リーディング問題の特徴としては以下3つです:

  • 特徴1:700-900字と英文の量が多い
  • 特徴2:制限時間が20分
  • 特徴3:問題数は13問前後

1分半で1問解く必要があります。

さらに問は細部を聞いてくるタイプが多いので精読と速読の両方が必要です。

まずトピック・センテンスを活用して全体像を把握します。

トピック・センテンスの見分け方

各パラグラフの冒頭の文をトピックセンテンスと呼びます。

トピックセンテンスの目的はパラグラフの概要を1文で理解できるようにするためです。

簡単にいうと、筆者が最も言いたいことがこのトピックセンテンスになります。人によってはキーセンテンスと呼ぶ人もいます。

エッフェル塔に関しての論説で例をみてみましょう:

IELTSリーディングトピックセンテンス

赤字の部分がトピックセンテンスとなります。

これを読むと、「Eiffelさんの案が採択されたこと」に関するパラグラフだと理解できます。

ではトピックセンテンスがないものを見てみましょう:

トピックセンテンスなし

いきなり”The Decision”とでてきても、なんの”The”?となりますね。

全体像を把握を把握する方法

リーディングの全体像を把握するためには、各パラグラフのトピックセンテンスをまず全て繋げて読みます。

実際に例を参考にしてみましょう:

赤字の部分を繋げて読むだけでおおよその全体の概要把握が可能です。

トピックセンテンスについて理解できたのではないでしょうか?それでは今から実践問題を解いてみましょう。

まずトピックセンテンスを繋げて読んでください。それから各問を把握する流れで解答してみてください。

練習問題

Scientists studying penguins’ feathers have revealed how the birds stay ice free when hopping in and out of below zero waters in the Antarctic. A combination of nano-sized pores and an extra water repelling preening oil the birds secrete is thought to give Antarctic penguins’ feathers superhydrophobic properties. Researchers in the US made the discovery using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to study penguin feathers in extreme detail. Antarctic penguins live in one of Earth’s most extreme environments, facing temperatures that drop to -40C, winds with speeds of 40 metres per second and water that stays around -2.2C. But even in these sub-zero conditions, the birds manage to prevent ice from coating their feathers.

“They are an amazing species, living in extreme conditions, and great swimmers. Basically they are living engineering marvels,” says research team member Dr Pirouz Kavehpour, professor of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). Birds’ feathers are known to have hydrophobic, or non-wetting, properties. But scientists from UCLA, University of Massachusetts Amherst and SeaWorld, wanted to know what makes Antarctic penguins’ feathers extra ice repelling.

“What we learn here is how penguins combine oil and nano-structures on the feathers to produce this effect to perfection,” explains Kavehpour. By analysing feathers from different penguin species, the researchers discovered Antarctic species the gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) was more superhydrophobic compared with a species found in warmer climes – the Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) – whose breeding sites include Argentinian desert.

Gentoo penguins’ feathers contained tiny pores which trapped air, making the surface hydrophobic. And they were smothered with a special preening oil, produced by a gland near the base of the tail, with which the birds cover themselves. Together, these properties mean that in the wild, droplets of water on Antarctic penguins’ superhydrophobic feathers bead up on the surface like spheres – formations that, according to the team, could provide geometry that delays ice formation, since heat cannot easily flow out of the water if the droplet only has minimal contact with the surface of the feather.

“The shape of the droplet on the surface dictates the delay in freezing,” explains Kavehpour. The water droplets roll off the penguin’s feathers before they have time to freeze, the researchers propose. Penguins living in the Antarctic are highly evolved to cope with harsh conditions: their short outer feathers overlap to make a thick protective layer over fluffier feathers which keep them warm. Under their skin, a thick layer of fat keeps them insulated. The flightless birds spend a lot of time in the sea and are extremely agile and graceful swimmers, appearing much more awkward on land.

Kavehpour was inspired to study Antarctic penguins’ feathers after watching the birds in a nature documentary: “I saw these birds moving in and out of water, splashing everywhere. Yet there is no single drop of frozen ice sticking to them,” he tells BBC Earth. His team now hopes its work could aid design of better man-made surfaces which minimise frost formation.

“I would love to see biomimicking of these surfaces for important applications, for example, de-icing of aircrafts,” says Kavehpour. Currently, airlines spend a lot of time and money using chemical de-icers on aeroplanes, as ice can alter the vehicles’ aerodynamic properties and can even cause them to crash.

Questions 29-33

Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.
Write the correct letter in boxes 29-33 on your answer sheet.

29. Penguins stay ice free due to

  1. A combination of nano-sized pores
  2. An extra water repelling preening oil
  3. A combination of nano-sized pores and an extra water repelling preening oil
  4. A combination of various factors

30. Antarctic penguins experience extreme weather conditions, including

  1. Low temperature, that can drop to -40
  2. Severe wind, up to 40 metres per second
  3. Below zero water temperature
  4. All of the above

31. In line 5 words engineering marvels mean:

  1. That penguins are very intelligent
  2. That penguins are good swimmers
  3. That penguis are well prepared to living in severe conditions
  4. BothBandC

32. Penguis feather has everything, EXCEPT:

  1. Hydrophobic properties
  2. Extra ice repelling
  3. Soft structures
  4. Oil structures

33. The gentoo penguin:

  1. Is less superhydrophobic compared to the Magellanic penguin
  2. Has feathers that contain tiny pores
  3. Can’t swim
  4. Lives in Argentinian desert

Questions 34-40

Complete the sentences below. Write ONLY ONE WORD from the passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 34-40 on your answer sheet.

Formations like 34________ could provide geometry that delays ice formation.

The delay in freezing is dictated by the 35_________ of the droplet. Penguins in Antarctic are highly evolved to be able to cope with 36________ conditions.

Penguins are insulated by a 37________ layer of fat. On the land, penguins appear much more 38________ than in the sea.

The inspiration came to Kavehpour after watching a 39_______ about penguins.

Kavehpour would like to see 40________ surfaces which minimise frost formation.

解答

  1. C
  2. D
  3. D
  4. C
  5. B
  6. spheres
  7. shape
  8. harsh
  9. thick
  10. awkward
  11. documentary
  12. biomimicking

正答数とスコア表

下記がIELTSリーディングの正答数とスコア表です:

Answer Bandscore
39-40 9.0
37-38 8.5
35-36 8.0
33-34 7.5
30-32 7.0
27-29 6.5
23-26 6.0
19-22 5.5
15-18 5.0
13-14 4.5
10-12 4.0

いかがだったでしょうか。

トピック・センテンスを繋げて読むだけで、全体像を把握することができてリーディング時間の短縮ができたのではないでしょうか?

IELTSの問題は、パラグラフ内のキーワードを探すことで解決できます。キーワード探しのコツは、以下のブログを参考にしてください:

参考:リーディング問題のキーワード探しのコツ

以下が著者のSNSです。

英語の「今まで」と「これから」

最短でスコアを伸ばすなら…

SOLOのミッションは最短でIELTSのスコアを伸ばすことです。

独学で限界を感じたら、一度カウンセリングを受けてみてください。IELTS・TOEFLなど資格対策のプロフェッショナルたちが、あなたの課題を解決できるかもしれません。

LINEでの相談も大歓迎です。気軽に質問してみてください!

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