TOEFLリーディングの過去問と解説【実践問題付き】

この記事では、TOEFLリーディングセクションの過去問を紹介しますね。

問題の解答と、詳しい解説も同じく紹介します。それでは早速、問題を解いてみましょう。

TOEFLリーディングのサンプル問題

リーディングの勉強は、以下の手順で行いましょう。学習効果が高くなります。

  1. サンプル問題を解く
    (この時に、100%確証がない問題にはマークをつける)
  2. 答え合わせする
  3. 分からない単語を全て調べる
  4. 正確に訳せない文章を精読する
  5. 間違えた問題 or 正解だったけど分からない問題をもう一度解く
  6. 1日2〜3回、音読する

理想とする回答時間は、「約20分」です。それでは、頑張ってくださいね!

Passage: Which Hand Did They Use?

[1] We all know that many more people today are right-handed than left-handed. Can one trace this same pattern far back in prehistory? (A)◾️ Much of the evidence about right-hand versus left-hand dominance comes from stencils and prints found in rock shelters in Australia and elsewhere, and in many Ice Age caves in France, Spain, and Tasmania. (B)◾️ When a left hand has been stenciled, this implies that the artist was right-handed, and vice versa. (C)◾️ Even though the paint was often sprayed on by mouth, one can assume that the dominant hand assisted in the operation. One also has to make the assumption that hands were stenciled palm downward—a left hand stenciled palm upward might of course look as if it were a right hand. (D)◾️Of 158 stencils in the French cave of Gargas, 136 have been identified as left, and only 22 as the right; right-handedness was therefore heavily predominant.

[2] Cave art furnishes other types of evidence of this phenomenon. Most engravings, for example, are best lit from the left, as befits the work of right-handed artists, who generally prefer to have the light source on the left so that the shadow of their hand does not fall on the tip of the engraving tool or brush. In the few cases where an Ice Age figure is depicted holding something, it is mostly, though not always, in the right hand.

[3] Clues to right-handedness can also be found by other methods. Right-handers tend to have longer, stronger, and more muscular bones on the right side, and Marcellin Boule as long ago as 1911 noted the La Chapelle-aux-Saints Neanderthal skeleton had a right upper arm bone that was noticeably stronger than the left. Similar observations have been made on other Neanderthal skeletons such as La Ferrassie I and Neanderthal itself.

[4] Fractures and other cut marks are another sources of evidence. Right-handed soldiers tend to be wounded on the left. The skeleton of a 40- or 50-year-old Nabatean warrior, buried 2,000 years ago in the Negev Desert, Israel, had multiple healed fractures to the skull, the left arm, and the ribs.

[5] Tools themselves can be revealing. Long-handed Neolithic spoons of yew wood preserved in Alpine villages dating to 3000 B.C. have survived; the signs of rubbing on their left side indicate that their users were right-handed. The late Ice Age rope found in the French cave of Lascaux consists of fibers spiraling to the right, and was therefore tressed by a righthander.

[6] Occasionally one can determine whether stone tools were used in the right hand or the left, and it is even possible to assess how far back this feature can be traced. In stone toolmaking experiments, Nick Toth, a right-hander, held the core (the stone that would become the tool) in his left hand and the hammer stone in his right. As the tool was made, the core was rotated clockwise, and the flakes, removed in sequence, had a little crescent of the cortex (the core’s outer surface) on the side. Toth’s knapping produced 56 percent flakes with the cortex on the right, and 44 percent left-oriented flakes. A left-handed toolmaker would produce the opposite pattern. Toth has applied these criteria to the similarly made pebble tools from a number of early sites (before 1.5 million years) at Koobi Fora, Kenya, probably made by Homo habilis. At seven sites he found that 57 percent of the flakes were right-oriented, and 43 percent left, a pattern almost identical to that produced today.

[7] About 90 percent of modern humans are right-handed: we are the only mammal with preferential use of one hand. The part of the brain responsible for fine control and movement is located in the left cerebral hemisphere, and the findings above suggest that the human brain was already asymmetrical in its structure and function not long after 2 million years ago. Among Neanderthalers of 70,000–35,000 years ago, Marcellin Boule noted that the La Chapelle-aux-Saints individual had a left hemisphere slightly bigger than the right, and the same was found for brains of specimens from Neanderthal, Gibraltar, and La Quina.

Questions 1 – 14

Q.1 The phrase “assisted in” in the passage [1] is closest in meaning to

  1. initiated
  2. dominated
  3. helped with
  4. set up

Q2. It can be inferred from paragraph 1 that even when the paint was sprayed by mouth to make a hand stencil

  1. there was no way to tell which hand was stenciled
  2. the stenciled hand was the weaker hand
  3. the stenciled hand was the dominant hand
  4. artists stenciled more images of the dominant hand than they did of the weak

Q3. The phrase “depicted” in the passage [2] is closest in meaning to

  1. identified
  2. revealed
  3. pictured
  4. imagined

Q.4 Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

Most engravings, for example, are best lit from the left, as befits the work of right-handed artists, who generally prefer to have the light source on the left so that the shadow of their hand does not fall on the tip of the engraving tool or brush.

  1. Right-handed artists could more easily have avoided casting shadows on their work because engravings in prehistoric caves were lit from the left.
  2. The tips of engraving tools and brushes indicate that these instruments were used by right-handed artists whose work was lit from the left.
  3. The best lighting for most engravings suggests that they were made by right-handed people trying to avoid the shadow of their hands interfering with their work.
  4. Right-handed artists try to avoid having the brush they are using interfere with the light source.

Q.5 All of the following are mentioned in paragraphs [1] and [2] as evidence of right-handedness in art and artists EXCEPT

  1. the ideal source of lighting for most engravings
  2. the fact that a left hand stenciled palm upward might look like a right hand
  3. the prevalence of outlines of left hands
  4. figures in prehistoric art holding objects with the right hand

Q.6 According to paragraph [3], the La Chapelle-aux-Saints Neanderthal skeleton can be identified as right-handed because

  1. other Neanderthal skeletons found nearby are also right-handed
  2. the right arm bone is stronger than the left
  3. it is similar to skeletons of La Ferrassie I and Neanderthal
  4. the right side of the skeleton shows less evidence of fractures

Q.7 Which of the following statements about fractures and cut marks can be inferred from paragraph [4]?

  1. Fractures and cut marks caused by right-handed soldiers tend to occur on the right side of the injured party’s body.
  2. The right arm sustains more injuries because, as the dominant arm, it is used more actively.
  3. In most people, the left side of the body is more vulnerable to injury since it is not defended effectively by the dominant arm.
  4. Fractures and cut marks on fossil humans probably occurred after death.

Q.8 According to paragraph [5], what characteristic of a Neolithic spoon would imply that the spoon’s owner was right-handed?

  1. The direction of the fibers
  2. Its long handle
  3. The yew wood is carved from
  4. Wear on its left side

Q.9 In paragraph [5], why does the author mention the Ice Age rope found in the French cave of Lascaux?

  1. As an example of an item on which the marks of wear imply that it was used by a right-handed person
  2. Because tressing is an activity that is easier for a right-handed person than for a left-handed person
  3. Because the cave of Lascaux is the site where researchers have found several prehistoric tools made for right-handed people
  4. As an example of an item whose construction shows that it was right-handed made by a right-person

Q.10 The word “criteria” in the passage [6] is closest in meaning to

  1. standards
  2. findings
  3. ideas
  4. techniques

Q11. What was the purpose of Toth’s toolmaking experiment described in paragraph [6]?

  1. To shape tools that could be used by either hand
  2. To produce replicas of early tools for display in museums
  3. To imitate the production of pebble tools from early sites
  4. To determine which hand made the early tools

Q.12 What is the author’s primary purpose in paragraph [7]?

  1. To illustrate the importance of studying the brain
  2. To demonstrate that human beings are the only mammal to desire fine control of movement
  3. To contrast the functions of the two hemispheres of the brain
  4. To demonstrate that right-hand preference has existed for a long time

Q.13 Look at the four squares ■ that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage. Where would the sentence best fit?

The stencils of hands found in these shelters and caves allow us to draw conclusions about which hand was dominant.

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D

Q.14 Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below.

Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer that expresses the most important ideas in the passage.

Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

Several categories of evidence indicate that people have always been predominantly right-handed.

  1. Stencils of right-handed figures are characteristic of cave art in France, Spain, and Tasmania.
  2. Signs on the skeletal remains of prehistoric figures, including arm-bone size and injury marks, imply that these are the remains of right-handed people.
  3. Instruments such as spoons, ropes, and pebble tools show signs that indicate they were used or constructed by right-handed people.
  4. The amount of prehistoric art created by right-handed artists indicates that left-handed people were in the minority.
  5. Neanderthal skeletons often have longer finger bones in the right hand, which is evidence that the right hand was stronger.
  6. Nick Toth, a modem right-handed toolmaker. has shown that prehistoric tools were knapped to fit the right hand.

Answers

Q1. 3
Q2. 2
Q3. 3
Q4. 3
Q5. 2
Q6. 2
Q7. 3
Q8. 4
Q9. 4
Q10. 1
Q11. 4
Q12. 4
Q.13 2
Q.14 2 / 3 / 4

リーディングサンプル問題の解説

さて、問題はいかがでしたか。

回答数がどうであれ、最も大切なことは復習です。復習する過程で記憶に定着して、運用できる英語が増えていきます。

またすぐに解説をみたい気持ちを抑えることも重要です。「自分で考える」プロセスを交えた方が、よりあなた自身の問題解決能力が高くなります。以下の手順で勉強してましょう。

  • 手順1:分からない単語を調べる
  • 手順2:訳せない文章を調べて訳してみる
  • 手順3:どうしても分からないところの解説をみる
  • 手順4:音読をする

語彙に関する問題

Q.1 / Q.3 / Q.10は、語彙に関する問題でした。

語彙に関する問題は、前提として選択肢の単語の意味を理解している必要があります。文脈から単語の意味を推測できても、選択肢を正しく理解できないと正解が導き出せないからです。

分からなかった場合は、不正解でも仕方がありません。単語の意味を覚えることから、対策していきましょう。

推測問題

Q.2が推測問題です。設問で指示された内容に関する文章を、正しく読み解く必要があります。

[paint] [spray] [mouth]と単語が連なっている箇所がありましたね。抜粋してみましょう。

Even though the paint was often sprayed on by mouth, one can assume that the dominant hand assisted in the operation.

上記の赤字の部分を日本語に訳すと、「利き手がその作業(口でペイントする作業)を助けた」となります。つまり、「the stenciled」は利き手ではないということが分かりますね。

推測問題は、本文中に明確な答えとなる情報がのっていないのが特徴です。文意を正しく読み解くことで、解答率が高くなります。

目的に関する問題

Q.9 / Q.11 / Q.12は、目的や理由を聞く問題です。

重要なことは、指定されたパラグラフのトピックセンテンスを理解することです。トピックセンテンスがわかれば、そのパラグラフ全体で伝えたいメッセージが理解できるからです。

例えば、Q11のトピックセンテンスは以下です:

Occasionally one can determine whether stone tools were used in the right hand or the left, and it is even possible to assess how far back this feature can be traced.

意訳すると、「石器が左右どちらかの手で使用されたか判断することができ、その特徴を過去まで追跡できる」ということです。ここだけ理解しただけでも、選択肢を絞り込むことができますね。

最後に

リーディングは復習が重要

さて、いかがでしたか。

リーディングは「過去問を解いてしっかり復習する」ことを繰り返せば、着実にスコアが伸びていきます。

何度も書きますが、重要なことは復習です。テストはあくまで力試し。間違ったところ、分からないところを分析して、着実にできない部分を減らしていくことが大切です。

英語の「今まで」と「これから」

最短で伸ばすならSolo

SoloはIELTSのスコアを最短で伸ばします。

自分だけで学習できる自信がない人は是非一度カウンセリングに来てみてね。

弊社のIELTSのプロ講師たちが待ってるよ。

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